A. А. Humbatova
Azerbaijan Languages University, Baku, Azerbaijan
The classification of the phraseological units and composite verbs can be constructed by several ways. But now, it should be mentioned that the very classification might be helpful in finding the right way of the aim and position put aside.
Both the Azerbaijani and English languages are very ancient languages. One of the proofs of it is the majority of phraseological and composite verbs used in their language system. Usually, ancient languages possess so many phraseological units and composite verbs as Azerbaijani and English have.
In the Azerbaijani language some phraseological units and composite verbs come from the epos “Kitabi Dede Korkud” (XIII century). This epos gives a vast, complete and accurate state of the Azerbaijani language during that period. With the help of this epic sample, the richness of this language can also be proved. As the language of this epos is very valuable for the studying and researching the history of phraseological units and composite verbs. Though this epos is historical, we can come across a great many phraseological units and composite verbs used in the epos even now in modern Azerbaijani, too. For example: and içmək (to swear, to promise), acığı tutmaq (to get angry), qanı qaynamaq (to get used), etc [4, p.37-39].
The most talented writers always have been trying to use phraseological units and composite verbs in their master works. Some of these writers even create most of phraseological units and composite verbs and give life to them in their works. It is true that one of the most important sources of English phraseological fund is related with Shakespeare’s name. But researches show that the writers living before Shakespeare created phraseological units, idioms and composite verbs in their work, too. It also should be mentioned that the phraseological units and composite verbs existed before Shakespeare managed to gain popularity only after him.
Some linguists consider that the number of phraseological units and composite verbs created by Shakespeare are five hundred, but some consider that they are more than one thousand [2, p. 92].
Such special phraseological units and composite verbs are available both in English and Azerbaijani and they are enriching the phraseological fund of a language. During years and centuries phraseological units and composite verbs which are created by the writers take a place in literary language and live how long the language exists.
Not only in English, but also in Azerbaijani composite verbs are some part of phraseological units. As in both languages these verbs are formed with exact parts of speech, such as, in English they are formed by verb + adverb (or preposition): to keep on, to sit down; but in Azerbaijani they are formed by several ways: with the help of the auxiliary verbs – “olmaq (to be), etmək, eləmək (to do): əlindən gələni etmək (to do one’s best), kömək etmək (to help); with the help of the formation second word from the first word: su sulamaq (to water), ütü ütüləmək (to iron) – in this case the first element is mainly a noun; with the help of the participle and the second is just a base verb: oturub durmaq ( to join (figurative meaning); to sit and stand up) and by special phrasal verbs (here the second element, i.e., the verb is somehow lose its base lexical meaning): yazığı gəlmək (to feel sorry), qulaq asmaq (to listen to).
Despite all these facts, English and composite verbs most often can’t be translated into Azerbaijani as composite verbs or otherwise. For example: In Azerbaijani the composite verb “gedər gəlməzə getmək” is translated into English as a phraseological unit (first used in the English language by Shakespeare) – “from whose bourn(e) no travelers returns” or In English the phraseological unit “go to the (demnition) bow-wows” translated into Azerbaijani as composite verbs “məhv olmaq, iflas etmək”.
The main reason of such difference in translation is explained by the genealogical variety of the languages and their structural system. As we already know, English and Azerbaijani are quite different languages from genealogical and typological point of views.
Except the writers creation of phraseological units and composite verbs, the main formation of them in their creation in folklore and in colloquial speech. For example: In English composite verbs are usually used in colloquial speech and they sometimes obtain figurative meaning. But in Azerbaijani they are usually used in literature and they also can be come across in oral speech. For example: In Azerbaijani yuxuya dalmaq (to settle down to sleep), Məcnuna dönmək (to love like crazy) or in English freeze out (to prevent someone from taking part in something) [6, p. 598], to camp up (camp it up) (to behave in a way that is deliberately artificial, especially in order to make people laugh at traditional ideas about how men and women should behave) [6, p. 207].
There are also phraseological units and borrowed from other languages in both languages. But these units are not composite verbs, as we know, verbs are the main source of languages and they most often can’t be borrowed from other languages.
A. V. Kunin divides phraseological units into three groups:
1. The original English phraseological units;
2. The phraseological units be borrowed from other languages;
3.The American version of phraseological units [5, p. 22].
Phraseological units and composite verbs in English, as well as, in Azerbaijani are the primary carrier of ethnic code. They are quite a lot in the language and are closely connected with the various historical events, professions and the life of the people. So every nation has its own special units. These phraseological units and composite verbs have been created by nation in various times of the history. In English the authors of most of them are unknown.
It should also be noted that borrowed phraseological units take the prominent place in the English language and it usually explained with the influence of other languages during invasions took place in the history of England. But Kunin considers that the majority of borrowed phraseological units are Latin and Greek origin [5, p. 23].
In the English language there are also a lot of phraseological units borrowed from American English. We come across a great many American idioms used in British English. All these phraseological units borrowed from American English aren’t translated, as they used in British English how they are formed in American English. The reason is usually related with the hegemony of the USA in many areas of economy, with the influence of American films and American literature.
So these figurative, idiomatic expressions and composite verbs are created by people and are closely connected with the daily activity and interests of ordinary people. New words, idiomatic expressions and composite verbs are, as a rule, result of language activity of illiterate people; most of the phraseological units, idioms, composite verbs, the most beautiful expressions are created usually in hotels, workshops, cuisines and fields. Though this idea is just used about the English phraseology, but it is equally true for the Azerbaijani language. Thus, tales, legends, epos, the products of folklore are rich with phraseological units, idioms, composite verbs and they are often used in every day speech.
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