Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, Tyumen, Russia
The career development plays an important role in a life of each person, because the career is associated with marital status, social position and psychological activity. The career way trains a person to difficulties of choice. The career consists of the certain stages, requires decision-making and has the destination station. On each stage a person has to perform an established role. Including the principal social and psychological processes, the career is joined with the value orientations that define the vector of the career forming. In conditions of globalization, rapid growth of economy, technologies, the term “career” is associated with the career growth. This association is entirely adequate, because the aspiration for development is an integral instinct. But the career is not the obligatory growth. The explanation of it is the value’s impact on each career’s stage. So this article will consider peculiarities of the career’s forming in aggregate of the value’s forming.
Firstly, it’s necessary to define the meaning of “career”. The one of the sociological dictionary interprets the career as a sequence of jobs performed by individuals in the course of their working life. It’s impossible to disagree with such statement, however it’s rather concise and doesn’t take into consideration the sociological aspects of the article’s subject. This significant nuance is taken into account by Iadov V.A. He defines the career as a worker’s advancement on the stages of industrial, scientific, managerial, social types of hierarchy. The character and the type of this hierarchy are determined by objective opportunities of career growth, life circumstances, personal skills, qualification, sociocultural skills, state of health, willpower of the worker, those are social resources. They stimulate possibility of the impact by value orientations on the formation personal career.
However, “value orientations” have more varied definitions in different sociological works, because many psychologists, philosophers and sociologists have dedicated their papers to researching of this term. Let’s give the comprehensive definition of “value orientations” that does reduce all researches to a common denominator. They are elements of the individual internal structure, than are formed and anchored by the person’s experience in the course of socialization and social adaptation which limit the significant things from the insignificant ones by firstly, interiorization of the value orientation and the basic ambition, and, secondly, interiorization of means towards this ends. The authors of many researches emphasize, value orientations depend directly on society, because a human is, first of all, a social creature. That’s why, there is an incontestable fact about the career’s dependence from society as an ancestor of individual valuables.
Since values begin to shape in childhood, so a kid has already ideas, dreams about its future from the earliest years. After years on graduating from the university, as a rule, a specialist makes a choice about the field of his career’s building due to the exactly value orientations, which are converted in childhood. It’s a period, which sets the origin of the individual career way, while the value orientations play a generating role. The young man makes a decision, weighing his own aims and means of their achieving, values and guidelines. They can be health, procreation, caring for parents, material welfare, religiousness, patriotism, self – actualization, development, charity and many over.
Besides a generating factor, it’s possible to retrace in analyses of the value’s impact on the career building its guiding role that sometimes is named by the corrective role. The person is confronts the different critical situations on his career way. It’s a value orientation that helps to come out of similar problems. If the solution of a problem doesn’t make an amendment in the plan of the goal achievement and a person is not roused to reexamine of his own values, it may note, the value orientation plays the guiding or corrective role in the career building.
The youngs can face the first critical situation in the process of the job placement. It’s, for example, necessary to make a choice between the desirable jobsite and the propositions of the labour market. At the first working days the youngs may face the state named as a shock by psychologists G. Craig. This state can be provoked by reality, when a person realizes, that his expectations are not realistic. On this stage the values help a person to define the further activities. There are a lot of such situations that can have the psychological nature connected with administrative duties, social impacts, influence given by subjects of value orientations.
It is necessary to note, it’s the guiding role of the value orientations, that determine stagnation and recession in the career way. If the individual values are not a career or welfares, given by it, then in a emergency a person follows his own value orientations, not his jobsite or his advancement. According to the research of World Values Survey (WVS), a career is a priority of 49,7 percents of the Russian pollees. It’s possible to draw a conclusion, if it’s necessary to make a cardinal decision, every second person waives the jobsite to over the values.
Prior to make a concrete conclusion, it’s necessary to make researches, because in this case the social, political and cultural aspects are very important too. Such circumstances may be the economic and political position in the country or the region which influence on the social factor such as nutrition, dwelling, education, recreation and over. Not the least of factors is culture tradition, peculiar to country.
The most influential factor in the career is a review of the value orientations. This process is inevitable, because socialization and adaptation are uninterrupted. If the factors, connected not only with work, oblige the individual to change his priorities and values, it changes the vector direction of his career’s development. On the whole, the transformation of the value orientation happens under the influence of turning points, regular stress situation or according to the individual desire, when he or she makes a decision to take a part in the personal training.
The value orientations, as elements of the individual internal structure, have an influential importance in each person’s life. Life is a regular development in one or another field determined by the individual values. The person binds the major portion of his life with his work, his value orientations determine each stages of his career building. The values determine the first choice in his professional career and direct his next movements through the career passage.
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