A. Vasil’eva postgraduate student,
Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University,
Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk region, Russia
The study of communication and communicative acts is one of the most important problems in the modern linguistics. The meaning of the term "communication" reflects meanings of two Latin words: communico, that means "to connect", and communication, that means "a message". When we study this term in paradigm of linguistics and cross-cultural communication, and found on the interpretation of the Latin words we think of communication as of the process of sending a message. Following are the definitions of the term "communication" found in the modern linguistics.
Many scientists agree that the term "communication" means "notional and semantic aspects of some social interaction." By this they mean that the communication is a multifunctional process with a very complicated structure . According to S. V. Borisnev, the communication itself is "a socially determined process of conveying the information in situations of interpersonal and mass interaction via various channels using different ways of communication". The scientist assumes that the communication as a process of conveying the information from one person to another can be realized on several levels: verbal, non-verbal, and others, so the communication is not restricted by verbal speech, and such aspects as gestures, facial expressions and the body language are a part of a communication as well. It should be mentioned that in the definition found in S. V. Borisnev's transaction "The sociology of the communication" the scientist mentions such purpose of the communication as influence and pressure upon a person . This idea is supported by another scientist, O. G. Filatova, but in her version of definition she writes about the influence on the society and it's components .
A scientist N. I. Semechkin  is sure that the core of the communication is conveying a message or some kind of a "meaning" from one mind to another, and this process is managed via system of signs. The scientist specifies that an individual mind as well as collective mind can take part in the process of communication. The example of such interaction is the artifacts of the Japanese culture which are not only understood but even assimilated by different people of the world no matter what national language they speak .
In Collins Dictionary of Sociology David Jary and Julia Jary also define communication as a process of conveying and exchanging the information, which can be studied from the point of view of its verbalization and intentionality. It should be mentioned that the scientists think that the communication is not only the message itself, but also the separate units of the information conveyed .
Having studied different points of view and definitions of the term "communication" in a modern science we have come to a conclusion that the information is a process of conveying some kind of a message.
The process of conveying a message, that is the communication, is realized via communicative act. The variety of linguists study the communicative acts as segments of communication. There are several ways to define the term " communicative act". According to S. V. Borisnev , the communicative act is an action meant to convey or get the information. The scientist says that the conditions of communication and the ways of conveying the message are not restricted. The scientist E. V. Kluev assumes that the communicative act is "an act of verbal interaction between native speakers" , in other words, "the combination of the speech acts managed by communicants towards each other". This definition seems quite questionable since we base on the opinion that the communication (and that includes communicative acts) can be realized verbally and non-verbally as well. Besides, we can’t agree that verbal interaction can take place only the native speakers. To our mind, in the globalizing world special attention should be paid to intercultural communication that is the communication between people of different cultures, and preparing specialist in this area of activity .
The linguists A. P. Guskova and B. V. Sotin agree that the basis of the communicative act is a single realization of the communication within some kind of a communicative situation, where the communicative situation is the situation of interaction that includes communicants . This point of view seems complete since it describes the problem exactly.
Most linguists define communication acts and speech acts differently. They assume that a speech act is a verbal part of a communication act. But still there are variety of scientists who think that these two terms are identical.
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