V. I. Gorbatov, Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences, assistant professor,
Vladimir State University
named after Alexander Grigoryevich and Nikolai Grigoryevich Stoletovs,
Vladimir, Vladimirskaya oblast, Russia
The modern realities of Russian society are characterized by qualitative changes in the information environment, which is rapidly improving and acquiring new routes. In the era of globalization, people and countries are a symbiosis of complex systems of information and communication continua, for which distances do not represent a significant barrier, the life strategy of individuals is increasingly dependent on modern information technologies.
The structure of the information environment is represented by information flows and various kinds of influences experienced by a person in a society. It seems to us that it can be characterized as a set of dynamic elements that have a direct or indirect, distant or momentary effect on a person. It can be postulated that the information environment is a means, which helps society to transmit social norms, value orientations, attitudes and behavioral strategies to citizens. The value of informational influence on human consciousness is that it shows an image of reality, cognitive technology of the world, specific situations, awareness of oneself and one’s capabilities. Information, having left the object of reflection, exists autonomously, entering the contents of memory, taking an active part in mental processes and transforming into ideas, knowledge, and skills . An objective assessment of information is that the need for it relates to the primary needs of the individual, and informational influences are a necessary condition for the functioning of public and individual consciousness, as well as the development of the individual and his prosocial life strategy.
The influence of information is psychologically determined and determines the individual’s behavioral strategy indirectly, using the psychological mechanisms of the central nervous system, in particular, the brain. The effectiveness of information impacts correlates with the change, restructuring of characterological characteristics, conditions and behavioral patterns of the individual.
Undoubtedly, today it is already obvious that the global characteristic of information development, the improvement of transnational information and telecommunications infrastructure is regarded as a positive phenomenon, but it also gave rise to many problems associated with the evolution of the individual and ensuring the psychological, medical, moral and legal aspects and its interaction with the surrounding world. Undoubtedly, the negative informational and psychological phenomenon is the effect of information on the psyche and cerebral cortex of the human brain, initiating inadequate reflections of the environment and, as a result, a modification of the behavioral strategy.
We share the point of view of G. Zarakovsky that informational and psychological risk factors that influence the personality include the “human -informational environment” paradigm, which is potentially dangerous for constructive vital activity due to the psychological impact of information . What factors of the information environment can be a risk group and sources of information and psychological danger? Sharing the opinion of I. Vinokurov, G. Gurtova, we state that, these are the following factors:
- the maximum number of uncontrolled information flow that goes to the communicants;
- correspondence of ergonomic features of information to perceptual characteristics of analyzers, attention, thinking, mnemonic processes, behavioral settings, adequacy of encoded information with a perceived pattern, streamlining of information flows based on the algorithm of their activity;
- the presence of elements in the information flows aimed at changing the psychophysiological status of large strata of the population or individuals, designed to make fundamental decisions;
- embedding in the information environment of modified physical information carriers that affect physiological carriers (acoustic, photon, electromagnetic) .
Among the factors of information and psychological risk of anthropogenic nature, we include:
- social immaturity of the personality, characterized by the inability of the individual to make a conscious choice of information and to uphold his vital position;
- a conformist model of behavior, consisting in the perception of manipulative informational influences;
- dysfunction of the psyche;
- the social tension of society, associated with an increased suggestion, mass psychosis, calls for a destructive charismatic personality, actualizing chronic or acute psycho-emotional distress, frustration, dysphoria.
Currently, the strength of the information environment impact on the human psyche has reached such a level that humanity should seriously think about information and psychological security. We characterize this phenomenon as a stable protection of the individual from destructive information attacks that change the psychological status of a person, as well as the presence of an individual’s social immunity, which helps to maintain a constructive beginning, homeostasis and harmony in interpersonal relationships.
Modern reality is such that in the information environment surrounding a person, information is simultaneously present both objectively reflecting the existing world, and in a deformed form. What does it depend on? It depends on the complexity of the cognitive process, on the incompleteness of our knowledge of the world, on the subjectivity of perception. For a socially immature person, the activity of different associations, such as, some political parties, occult groups, extremist organizations, individuals with parapsychological characteristics, as well as people who rely on hidden programming through information sources, is of great danger. A. Sapozhnikova in her work “Information and psychological security of Russia: state and trends” notes that according to the most approximate estimates in Russia there are several hundred destructive groups .
V. Anosov and V. Lepsky have revealed that manipulations with the personality consciousness, its emotional and volitional sphere belong to negative information psychological influences. Ideas, attitudes, behavioral stereotypes are imposed on people, psychological compulsion is carried out .
We, as well as N. Lyz, have identified three levels of manipulation:
- the first level consists in emphasizing the necessary concepts, theories, motives, value orientations available in people’s minds;
- the second level is due to small changes in views on an event, a process that affects the emotional and rational attitude to a particular phenomenon;
- the third level is a fundamental change in life strategy through the message to the individual of innovative, sensational, extremely important information for him.
Currently, the consequences of the uncontrollability of the information flow not only pose a threat to personal improvement, but also emphasize loneliness, actualize the lack of live communication, and lead to the leveling of mechanisms of interpersonal cultural interaction. Information, acting on consciousness, changes the image of the world of people and reprograms their consciousness.
Nowadays, the term “information stress” has come into our lives, the essence of which is that a person cannot find the necessary algorithm that would help him cope with the task and make the right decision based on the required time management. The researcher V. Bodrov has clarified the etiology leading to the development of information stress:
- an informational group of reasons, including the semantic level, which includes the high responsibility of the task, the ambivalence of information, the unpredictability of the situation development; operational level, including the lack of information or a low probability of receipt of an important information; the time level, which includes either an insufficient amount of time or the longitudinal impact of the information load; organizational level, represented by a distorted choice of the necessary information, distraction, objective fluctuation of the information presentation;
- subjective factors that determine the possibility of the emergence, regulation and overcoming of distress within the framework of the profession, physiology, psychology;
- environmental factors suggesting the development of stressful conditions.
Modern society, developing according to the laws of globalization, has created a whole industry of information, including means of informatization, telecommunications and communications. Nowadays, scientists have identified three fundamental needs of the individual, actualizing him to turn to the QMS (mass media): the need for informational communication with the outside world; need for entertainment (hedonism); need for distraction (moving away from everyday life into a world, albeit virtual, but of beauty).
The most common means of transmitting information are paper and electronic documents, which are based on textual information. Today it has become a regularity that we receive a greater share of information from electronic sources than from direct experience and personal communication. The electronic information environment includes global computer networks of general use, animation, multimedia products, computer games, programs, television and radio broadcasting. Both visual and auditory information technologies act on a person’s consciousness without falling into the field of view of the mind.
Active impact on humans is provided by the Internet. The expanded constant activity of a person in it makes its norms and values identical with the norms of the objective world. The Internet allows people to suppress aggressiveness and anger, helps to shape the self-image, the circle of communication. Strengthening the attractiveness of the Internet lies in the fact that due to the closure of access to social control, a feeling of limitless possibilities is created, including the manifestation of the effect of demonstrativeness. A socially immature person quickly loses the guidelines between the real and the virtual.
Of course, a person needs to remove distress and getting the desired information, he is emotionally discharged and resting, but hedonism and virtualization should not become the prevailing goal and meaning of a person’s life, as well as the main way of spending leisure time.
Undoubtedly, the formation of addictive behavior, as well as information overload, leading to nervous exhaustion and transcendental inhibition, is a negative factor during the prolonged exposure to information load. In addition to reducing immunity and impaired optimal physiological activity of the body, working capacity decreases, infantility and suggestiveness appear.
A. Kozyreva notes that in response to the frustration of basic life values, metapatologies develop as a consequence of the destruction of the individual’s constructive system under the influence of external pressure, manifested in depression, an existential vacuum, a sense of hopelessness, disintegration, despair .
Thus, the information environment has both positive and negative psychological effects on humans. Today, the urgent issue is the preservation of the psychological health of the individual and ensuring its information and psychological security.
1. Anosov V.D., Lepsky V.E. Initial premises of information and psychological security problems // Problems of information and psychological security / ed. A.V. Brushlinsky, V.E. Lepsky. - Moscow, 1996.
2. Vinokurov I., Gurtova G. Psychotronic war. - Moscow, 1993.
3. Zarakovsky G.M., Smolyan G.L. Information and psychological security: basic concepts // Psychology and security of organizations; under the editorship of A.V. Brushlinsky and V.E. Lepsky. - Moscow, 1997.
4. Kozyreva A.Yu. Information and psychological security in the practice of the diplomatic service. - Moscow, 2004.
5. Manoylo A.V. State information policy in special conditions: a monograph. - Moscow, 2003.
6. Sapozhnikova A. Information and psychological security of Russia: state and trends // Power. - 2008. - No. 2.
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