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Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
русский, английский, чешский
Идёт приём материалов
Информатика Искусствоведение История Культурология Медицина Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Техника Филология Философия Экология Экономика
M. V. Klymovych Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, director
Municipal Higher Education Institution "V. F.Benkovskyi
Beryslav Pedagogical College " Kherson Regional Council,
city of Beryslav, Ukraine
The statement of the problem in general. The interest to the problem of environmental approach to professional training of future teachers conditioned by the peculiarities of professional work which becomes more complicated and requirements that apply to individual modern specialist teaching areas. The problem of using the educational potential of educational environment in different types of educational institutions of Ukraine requires studying of scientific and methodological aspect as an important factor of the individual professional development of future primary school teachers.
Analysis of recent research and publications. The problems of preparing future teachers (including primary school teachers) to the profession are current today (O. Abdulina, Yu. Babanskii, H. Ball, N. Guzii, N. Kuzmina, A. Kuzminskyi, O.Pometun and others). The subjects of the researches of T. Voronova, S. Goncharenko, K. Durai-Novakova, M. Diachenko, I. Ziaziun, L. Kondrashova, Z. Levchuk, K. Makahon, O.Moroz, V. Radul, V.Slastionin and others were the issues of professional image of future teachers and their readiness to different types of professional and educational activities.
A significant contribution to the study of theoretical, methodological and technological bases of preparation of future primary school teachers is done by Sh. Amonashvili, N. Bibik, V. Davydov, D. Elkonin, L. Zankov, O. Komar, V. Kuz, N. Pobirchenko, G. Pustovit, O. Savchenko, V. Sukhomlinskyi and others.
Theoretical and methodological basis for the organization of research work and preparation the teacher to it was learned by A.Yermola, Yu. Konarzhevskyi, M. Potashnik and others. L. Baikova, Ye. Bielozertsev, B. Hershunskyi, Yu. Gromyko, V. Zahviazynskiy, I. Zymniaia, L. Levchenko, A. Shcherbakov and others justify the nature, content, basic structural components of educational research activities, develop criteria for evaluating its results.
Educational potential of methodological work in the formation of a professional person "I" of the teacher and its influence on the formation of innovative thinking and improving the level of professionalism of specialist-beginner are mentioned in the works of R.Hilborg, G. Horska, N.Granovska, A. Demintsev, I. Zhernosek, O. Kozlov, O. Marchenko and others.
The attention of researchers is more and more attracted with an environmental issue as a factor in the formation of future specialist personality (Ye. Bondarevskaia, Ye.Zeier, L. Kondrashova, V. Kozyrev, M. Mykhailichenko, O.Orlov, I. Palasheva, Z. Smirnova and others).
The most works devoted to the training of primary school teachers have the comparative description between two levels: in conditions of a pedagogical college and university (N. Denisov, V. Kuznetsov, Ye. Osorgin, P. Reshetnikov, I.Chichkanova, O.Chepka and others). The researchers emphasize the need for matching the curricula and training programs for future teachers of elementary school, which is built according to the total current requirements of modern professional training in continuing education in the system "college-high school".
In preparing elementary school teacher at the level of Pedagogical College a number of scientific works regarding to certain aspects of such training (L.Grybov, O. Kuznetsov, N. Rosina, M. Shipulin etc.) are declared.
Emphasis of early unsolved aspects of the general problem. The nature, structure, features of educational environment and teaching environment which are its microenvironment, the principles of environmental approach in their adaptation to training teachers were investigated in scientific studies. However, the possibilities of scientific and methodological environment for professional development and affirmation in the careers of future primary school teachers weren’t investigated and both the impact of scientific and methodological environment on the effectiveness of educational work and professional growth of students in a pedadogical college and opportunities to prepare them for planning scientific and methodological environment for independent educational work were not considered.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate the need for creating the scientific and methodological environment in a pedagogical college, determine the influence of socialization and adaptation of future teachers of elementary school to it during training.
Presenting the main material. The qualitative training is possible in the case of teaching the students to realize the optimal ratio of the individuality and the environment, to harmonize efforts of the individuality and the environment, their interaction in creating the necessary conditions for the professional development of future teachers of primary school. The individuality and the environment must not be the elements which exclude each other but they must be mutually conditioned components of a whole. In pedagogical regulated and controlled environment of scientific methodology in pedagogical college a student has rapidly growing need not only for mastering knowledge and skills, but also the need to independent obtaining and transforming them into values, desire for meaningful and non-standard use in teaching practice.
The concept of "educational environment" is a set of conditions for the educational process and forming of a personality. In this regard, there is interaction, mutual subject and educational environment. The environment is designed to create conditions for the professional growth of students, to help them in gaining confidence in the correctness of professional choice, to adapt them to the real educational work and the conditions in which it takes place, to create mechanisms for assistance and psychological support, to assist in the formation of subjectivity, individuality of each student, to stimulate their values and moral, cognitive, communicative, methodological activities.
Lately there has been a lot of talk about the role of educational environment in educational institutions, which is an important part of the scientific and methodological environment. Scientific and methodological environment is a set of conditions which ensure effectiveness of the professional growth, acquiring scientific and methodological values of teaching reality based on interaction, collaboration and co-creation of partners which stimulate the development of professional and social formation of students, affect their level of readiness to create elementary school atmosphere of scientific research, creating of author programs and projects, scientific methodological support for the educational process.
A distinctive feature of the environment of pedagogical college is the usage of information procedural interpretation of emotionally intelligent semantic fields of studied phenomena, social and communicative relationships in teaching reality. The teacher of the college manifests subjectivity not only in the transmission of educational information but he also acquires knowledge himself and opens it in the role of the researcher.
Scientific and methodological environment as a complex concept, its nature, structure and content is determined by the specifics of pedagogical work and main activities of a teacher. O. Bondarevska, describing the position of teacher in the scientific and educational activities, believes that he is often not a researcher, but a designer, a creator of a new educational product. "The object and result of his activity is educational product itself but not theoretical knowledge about it" [8, p. 114].
The research process and transformation (introduction) converge in time and interpenetrate during the educational process. Science becomes a tool for resolving professional and educational problems, a means of converting educational reality. In the teachers' practices innovation activity gets the development that combines teacher-innovator with science and teaching practice.
The scientific training is the basis of innovation activity of a teacher. "... The educational picture of the world – according to O. Bondarevska – appears to a modern researcher as a global educational space, which epicenter is a man, who implements his potentialities and abilities in different cultural and information environment through the implementation of individual trajectories of development that is educationally provided with humanoid type of education, value-semantic content and adequate technologies of training and education" [8, p.116].
Along with the scientific vision and solution of pedagogical problems in practical work of a teacher the methodological innovation takes an important place. Methodological aspect has to take a significant place in the practical training of students. Methodical work should not be limited to developing recommendations, the formulation of regulatory guidelines and regulations, following teaching recipes. Its essence is in the work with consciousness of teachers, life and professional meanings of educational activities, the formation of their positions, ensuring efficiency process of mastering designing methods and transforming the educational reality.
Scientific and methodological aspects of the teacher's work interact in educational space, which actualize the need to create in training and educational institutions scientific and methodological environment and highlight its main characteristics.
The main characteristics of scientific and methodical environment in pedagogical college are:
- attitude to the school as a whole scientific and methodological space where standards of educational activities are restored, behavior of students and teachers, innovation activity is implemented, methodological support of educational process aimed at personal development of its members is created;
- availability setup and positive motivation to the scientific and methodological work as an important factor of professional formation of the person;
- implementation of focused, systematic training of students for research and educational work and the formation of their readiness to create during educational activities the atmosphere of creativity and innovative teaching solutions;
- pleasure of teachers and students from relationship, interaction, collaboration and co-creation in scientific and methodological activities;
- presence of positive emotional state at different stages of scientific and methodological work in the educational institution;
- participants focus scientific and technical activities on positive result, a new educational product, methodological decisions and findings, develop creative projects;
- enthusiasm of participants by collective scientific search and creative solution of scientific and methodological issues;
- monitoring, assessment and self-assessment of teaching achievements, the level of professionalism in the research and development of scientific and methodological issues arising from the educational reality and needs of modernizing the educational process in schools of various types, including pedagogical colleges;
- productivity of scientific and methodological activities.
The first pedagogical condition for training college students to create educational scientific and methodological environment in elementary school, we recognize stimulation and socialization processes of adaptation to conditions of scientific and methodological college environment.
Adaptation is the process and the result of the counter activity of the subject and scientific and methodological environment. This process involves bringing into compliance the requirements of scientific and methodological environment concerning the professional activity of the future teacher with his guidelines, professional conduct, harmonisation of self evaluation and demands of students with their opportunities and realities of scientific and methodological environment. Adaptation is the process and the result of formation a student as a pedagogue-professional, a citizen and a creative person.
Stimulation of the adaptation process provides the development in a student the need to have his own opinions, preferences, to solve professional problems on his own, the ability to resist those professional situations that interfere with their self-improvement, self-fulfillment and self-affirmation.
The process of adaptation is inseparable from the process of socialization. G. Andreeva  considers socialization as a two-way process of mastering social experience by human with joining the social environment and displaying the systems of social ties due to his intensive activity. Socialization is the process of transformation the person in full member of society, which is implemented under the spontaneous influence of social environment and specially organized pedagogical influence on personality.
The process of preparing a future pedagogue to create a scientific and methodological environment in elementary school should be aimed at developing professional skills of students, their positive socialization, providing favorable conditions for the individual and social formation of future pedagogues [6 p. 106].
In the process of socialization there is inside, not fully resolved conflict between the student adaptation measure to teacher’s work and the degree of his personification in the performance of professional functions.
There are two most extensible approaches to socialization of personality in teaching practice. One involves passive position of the student in socialization, which is a process of adaptation of the individual to society, that forms each member in accordance with the existing culture in him. This approach is known as subject-object (society is subject of influence, and the man is his object) . Another approach to socialization considers a man as active, not only adapting to society, but also affecting the living conditions and himself. This approach is treated as a subject-subject.
In our study, to stimulate socialization process the subject-subject approach is taken as the basis that allows us to consider socialization as the reproduction of scientific and methodological culture, which takes place in interaction of future teachers with spontaneous relatively manageable means aimed at their professional development and adaptation to independent professional activity.
Pedagogical essence of socialization is to provide the opportunity for students to accumulate personal experience for creating scientific and methodological environment in elementary school.
The acquirement of social experience by students is only in the process of their practical interaction with any subjects or objects of reality in a practical communication and interaction in various activities . Educational socialization experience is accumulated in various types of scientific and educational activities.
Pedagogical direction of socialization provides a certain balance adaptation and personification of future teachers in a particular educational activities and scientific and methodical environment of a primary school. Pedagogical orientation of socialization in pedagogical college is implemented with a wide range of forms, methods and tools specific to the teaching profession, cooperative, collective-group and situational training, study of controversial issues, creating a situation of success in the educational process.
Socialization success of the process depends on college teachers who need to be able to establish a constructive high-level contact in any area of students’ activity with each of them. It is important to form during training the students for teaching activities ''ability to create the necessary atmosphere of dialogue, the ability to show tolerance to other people's opinions, understand the situation and the perspective of others, the ability to identify himself with other social and personal role, to seek and to assist, promote and enjoy, think together" .
We consider a dialogue as a special environment that provides subject-semantic communication in the system "teacher-student", reflection, self-realization of each participant. In the dialogue there is an exchange of knowledge, scientific ideas, perceptions and emotions. According to M. Bakhtin , the dialogue is not only a form of communication of participants of activities (educational, scientific-methodological and communicative), but also a form of interaction when comprehension of own professional "I" is in the process of communicating with others.
Stimulation of adaptation and socialization involves the implementation of educational interaction, collaboration and co-creation in the classroom. The position of the teacher changes from authoritarian leadership training process to assist students to discover their capabilities and abilities in professional formation. The position of a teacher P. Grishkova identified as "focusing on the psychological-pedagogical support of personal and professional selfdevelopment of a student" [4, p. 12].
Pedagogical interaction in the process of learning causes posing a student in the position of active stakeholders, that allows to implement the realisation of circumstances and conditions for effective teaching and creation of scientific and methodological environment.
The changing role of the student in practical classes, turning him into an active participant in the learning process and systematic work at self-development, belief in himself in the process of mastering the theory and pedagogical technologies affect his willingness to create a healthy psychological atmosphere.
Pedagogical interaction and cooperation between teachers and students in the learning process positively affects their socialization and adaptation to scientific and methodological teaching college environment. The success of this complex process will be provided if the teacher can :
- create fear free atmosphere of the promulgation of own opinion;
- be as cautious and considerate;
- respect the opinions of students, encourage their independence and originality of statements;
- make professionally aimed situations;
- provide students the freedom of action and situation of success;
- take into consideration the guidelines in time, motivation, capabilities and abilities of each student.
The findings of this study. Our study proves the need as a form of life of modern pedagogical education to consider scientific-methodological environment as a mechanism for professional development of future teachers of primary school. Adaptation and socialization of students to the scientific and methodological pedagogical college environment is essential for their readiness to independent solving professional problems. Promotion the adaptation process leads to the formation of not only student’s individuality but his professional features, style of activities that promotes the training of specialists of new formation educational sphere.
Prospects for further research. The analysis of scientific literature indicates that such significant aspects of the problem as training of primary school teachers to create a scientific and methodological environment requires a wide range of research, theoretical study of methods and technologies for training students of pedagogical college to create this environment in their future independent professional activity .
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