O. L. Samodumska
candidate of pedagogical sciences, assistant professor, doctoral applicant,
Classical private University, Zaporozhye, Ukraine
The relevance of the present study is due to the fact that non-formal adult education in Ukraine has recently become an open platform for the organization of activities in which adults have alternative opportunities for general cultural and professional development outside the official (formal) system that provide adults with personal, professional and socially significant results. However, the Director of the Institute of pedagogical education and adult education of UKRAINE named after Ivan Zyazyun of national Academy of pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine L. Lukyanova pointed out that in Ukraine adult education “as a component of education during life does not take the proper place and has not received appropriate recognition, and the attitude towards it can rather be described as a personal matter, which is mainly engaged in commercial structures” [2, p. 8].
At the same time, in Ukraine there is an extremely great need for adult education, which is not voiced by society, the state, stakeholders . Unlike EU countries, where this direction is successfully functioning for a long time, Ukraine had just come to the understanding of the value of the concept of education throughout life, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of the various components of the structure of the system of adult education that would be subordinate to the common goal [4, p. 116].
Research of non-formal adult education in Ukraine, as part of the national adult education system, requires not only theoretical justification, determination of its place, functions, components, but also generalization and systematization of the existing numerous non-formal educational practices carried out by various subjects of this activity.
The purpose of the article is to reveal the picture of the current state of non-formal adult education in Ukraine and describe the features of its leading subjects.
Non-formal adult education is recognized by the state kind of adult education, part of a holistic, flexible, transparent national system of adult education. In the new Law «On education» adopted in September 2017, in accordance with P. 3 of the Art. 8, non-formal is education, which is acquired, as a rule, for educational programs and does not provide for the award of state-recognized educational qualifications by level of education, but may end with the award of professional and/or partial educational qualifications . Accordingly, the state acts as a guarantor and a leading subject of the organization and implementation of non-formal adult education.
Among the main tasks of the national system of adult education is indicated, including the solution of problems of organizational and management, information and financial support of non-formal adult education, training of pedagogical staff to work with adults, the development of non-formal education for persons who have limited access to the market of formal educational services .
Analysis of last researches and publications showed that the theoretical justifications of the development of non-formal adult education the scientific and pedagogical community, public figures (V. Andrushchenko, O. Anishchenko, N. Goruk, E. Huseynova, Y. Derkach, L. Lukyanova, A. Makarenya, V. Mackiewicz, S. Mackiewicz, T. Muhlaieva, O. Ogienko, O. Roitblat, T. Sorochan, N. Surtaeva, N. Terekhina, L. Tymchuk, M. Yakushkina, etc.) have received considerable attention in different vector directions.
The development of non-formal adult education in Ukraine by scientists and practitioners is considered as a phenomenon. It consists in the fact that since the end of the 20th century there was an activation of the adult population on training and there was a demand for educational services which official education could not satisfy. This phenomenon remained «the object of sensory cognition, which had to be perceived based on the experience of its existence, in contrast to the noumenon which is comprehended by the mind and is the basis of intellectual contemplation» [9, p. 717]. The experience of this phenomenon of non-formal education is represented by the emergence and existence of a unique educational environment for the adult population. Such platforms were various courses, trainings, master classes, open lectures, festivals and fairs of educational innovations, creativity, personal development of adults, conferences, forums, a variety of online events.
The definition of the state of organization of non-formal educational activities of adults largely depends on the subjects directly involved in this process: adults, students, andragogist (adult education specialists) and providers of non-formal educational services.
In the study of the real practice of non-formal adult education, we relied on the materials of numerous sites of subjects of non-formal adult education who are engaged in this activity, as well as the «Results of sociological research «Trends in the development of non-formal education in Ukraine»», conducted with the support of the representative Office of DVV International in Ukraine, public associations of the International center for non-formal education and the Ukrainian Association for adult education. Authors: L. Moskalenko, N. Komarova, L. Voinova, D. Morgunovsky .
The nature of the provision of educational services to adults, first of all, depends on the characteristics of the leading entity – the adult population, which is trained, from the perspective of the consumer of these services. The marketing term «target audience» is becoming increasingly used in relation to the «adult population», which means a large group of adults united by common features that are ordered by the providers of these educational services. From the point of view of marketing, such an audience is the group of adults who are most likely to purchase a product or service [6, p. 805].
For the segmentation of the adult population, various categories are taken into account, among them – age, sex, marital status, level of education, employment, profession, position, welfare, financial status and the like. The process of organizing non-formal adult education in Ukraine takes place for various groups of the adult population, including socially vulnerable groups of the adult population (unemployed, people with disabilities, prisoners, migrants, immigrants and refugees, women, older people, liberated military, etc.).
According to the results of the study , the vast majority of participants in non-formal education in Ukraine are women, who make up 89.3%, men – 10,7%. In the presented voters age groups of the population – consumers of non-formal education were distributed as follows: 18–28 years – 20,8 %; 29–35 years – 17,5 %; 36–40 years – 14,9 %; 41–49 years – 25,5 %; 50–72 years – 21,3 %. The distribution of respondents by level of education showed that participants of non-formal education are educated people: 76,5 % have higher education (completed 63,4 %, basic 8,7 %, incomplete 4,4 %), another 16,0 % have academic degrees, which in total is 92,5 % .
The saturation of the modern national educational market with a variety of representatives and organizers of non-formal adult education has led to the need to characterize the next subject – providers of such educational services, in the analysis of their forms and types in Ukraine.
The term «educational service provider» has recently become widely used in Ukraine. Non-formal adult education providers are broadly defined as the companies, organizations, institutions or individuals that provide these services to the target audience, that is, the adult consumer. Educational service (P. 1.18 of the Art. 1 of the Law of Ukraine «On education») is a set of defined by the legislation, the educational program and/or the contract of actions of the subject of educational activities, have certain value and aimed at achieving the applicant education expected learning outcomes .
In modern conditions in the informal educational market of Ukraine there is a situation of coexistence of different forms of ownership, internal organization, categories of coverage of the target audience of applicants (users), types of training, topics and duration of educational programs for adults, educational strategies, form of payment of educational services. Among them: adult education centers, business centers, public organizations, charitable foundations, libraries, various studios, open universities, business schools, individual entrepreneurs, internal training units of enterprises and institutions.
Information about providers can be found on non-formal education websites. The most popular site of non-formal education according to the results of the study  is «Resource center «GURT» (50,1 %); the second place is «Portal «Public space» (42,0 %); the third – «Online platform of non-formal education in Ukraine» (39,0 %); the fourth – «Public initiatives of Ukraine» (32,9 %). From 20 % to 25 % of respondents know the sites «Digest of opportunities on StudWay» and «Big idea: Opportunities»; from 7 % to 14 % know the sites «Openstudy», «Platform», «Ukrainian forum of philanthropists» and «Opportunities in Ukraine» .
The systematization of informal providers of educational services allowed to combine them into the following main groups: by form of ownership – private, public, municipal; according to the estimate of participation of applicants (listeners, users) – free and paid; by organizational and legal form of management – organization (institution) of non-formal adult education; enterprises engaged in non-formal adult education, internal training units of enterprises, business societies, cooperatives, an individual entrepreneur.
Consequently, providers who supply specialized educational services from non-formal adult education in Ukraine are subjects of educational activities that ensure the realization of the right of an adult to education during life in the implementation of such educational and other activities through the development of General cultural, civil, professional competencies.
Another subject of informal adult education is the andragogist, from training and skill level of which depends largely on its success and effectiveness. Among the Ukrainian scientists for a long time, there was a discussion about the name of the profession pedagogical worker who works with adults: an andragogist, educator, teacher of adults, teacher of adults, facilitator, trainer for adult education, and the like.
The profession of «an andragogist» national classifier DK 003:2010 «Classification of Professions» was introduced by Order of Ministry of economic development 15.02.2019 № 259 «On approval of the amendments # 8 to the national classifier DK 003:2010 «Classification of Professions»», job code 2359.2 . The basis for the justification of this decision entrusted the project of the qualification characteristics of the profession (position) «an andragogist» for pedagogical and scientific-pedagogical employees of institutions of formal and non-formal education developed by the employees of the Department of andragogy of the Institute of pedagogical education and adult education of Ukraine named after Ivan Zyazyun of national Academy of pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine.
Basic understanding of the nature of the profession of adult educators in the Ukrainian scientific community was laid by L. Lukyanova [5, p. 25]: an andragogist – the organizer of adult education, consultant; assists in the recovery of motivation to learn, owns the content as andragogic and professional activities of those who are learning, methodology andragogical support self-education of adults. An andragogist working with adults in various areas of formal, non-formal, informal education .
Official training of andragogists in Ukraine is not executed, despite requests, because the missing remains the official rationale of the qualification requirements to the profession of adult educators, the existence of professions of substitute when the function of experts for adult education teachers perform the educational institutions however without special training.
Therefore, within the non-formal education appropriate specialists are trained. Moreover, it should be noted the variety of directions offered by providers of this training, which have created today a significant competition and the possibility of choice for potential applicants to become specialists in adult education – business coach, coach, personal assistant and the like. Among such companies: International school of business coaches ICBT in Ukraine, School of trainers and Integrated coaching school of International consulting group «Living business», Isaac Pintosevich Systems, «D&Y» company, School of coaching skills training center «ADVANCE», etc.
An important subject of non-formal education is the customer of educational services – the corporate sector. Since the post-industrial society has become an information society, non-formal adult education is affirmed as a kind of mobile and dynamic response to innovative changes. Developments in artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, 3D printing and biotechnology have become part of public and private life. The real demand for professions in the labour market differs significantly from the offers of formal education for the training of such specialists. Corporations create their own system of training their employees, or use the offer of providers of non-formal educational services.
So, the priority directions of the nearest development of non-formal adult education in Ukraine are as follows:
- legal, organizational and managerial support and support of non-formal adult education by the state, national institutions and local authorities;
- popularization of non-formal education as a component of lifelong education and involvement of the general adult population of different categories;
- consolidation of actions of providers of non-formal adult education under the auspices of all-Ukrainian informal unions, for example, the Ukrainian Association of adult education, etc.;
- providing formal training andragogists (experts in adult education) adult learning in informal education;
- study of the educational needs of the corporate sector and its timely provision of information on informal events;
- financial involvement of the public, municipal and private sectors in the support and development of non-formal adult education and the like.
Summary. The modern state of informal adult education in Ukraine depends on the leading subjects, among them – adults who are learning, andragogist (specialists of adult education), providers of educational services, the government, the corporate sector. The nearest development of non-formal adult education in Ukraine will depend on the coordinated actions of the subjects represented.