Научно-методический и теоретический журнал
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Искусствоведение История Культурология Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Филология Философия Экономика
M. A. Takhirova
Postgraduate Student, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek,
Global social-economic changes taking place all over the world have led to the reform of the system of teaching languages as a priority direction for the further development of higher education. The study of the Russian language as a leading means of interethnic communication, interstate communication, has become one of the main factors in the training of highly qualified personnel at the level of international standards.
In developed countries of the world, scientific and theoretical research is being carried out in the field of improving technologies for teaching foreign languages, developing socio-cultural knowledge, skills and abilities of students in non-core areas of education, theoretical foundations for the continuous improvement of their skills in the study of foreign language vocabulary. Work is underway to introduce new models for the formation of students' speech skills, information search skills to master a sufficient body of knowledge for professional communication in a foreign language, including Russian, and the introduction of innovative teaching methods into the educational process. At the same time, the study of the development of speech competences in the Russian language among future specialists in non-core universities is in demand, since at the moment the need to teach students the Russian language in non-core higher educational institutions necessitates taking into account pedagogical and psychological-didactic conditions as a means of mastering the future specialty in the extralinguistic aspect.
In recent years, large-scale reforms have been carried out in our republic, affecting all levels and structures of the education system, aimed at ensuring its compliance with world standards. A developed legal basis for reforming the education system has been created for the study of foreign languages, including Russian, programs based on foreign experience and meeting international standards have been developed, and the material and technical base has been strengthened.
The study of the development of speech competencies in the Russian language among future specialists of non-core universities is timely, since the problem under consideration is associated with the lack of educational materials that are adequate to the needs of the engineering and technical profile and contribute to the formation of not only linguocultural speech competence, but primarily the actual language and communicative competencies of the professional orientation of future specialists. The main educational features of the content of teaching the Russian language are determined by the specific nature of the difficulties that future specialists face in the course of educational activities.
The contradiction between the practical need for effective teaching of the Russian language in non-core universities and the lack of development of its methodology is a problem that manifests itself in the desire and desire of future specialists to master the laws of interpersonal cognition, communication technologies, (including speech) etiquette, in order to develop skills to adequately perceive and understand the normative Russian vocabulary for the assimilation of knowledge in the future specialty.
Practice shows that students of non-core universities feel the need to increase the level of formation of communicative competence in mastering a future profession, in self-determination and self-presentation of a person in an intensively developing labor market.
The communicative orientation of the modern methods of teaching the Russian language, as shown by modern research, can be fully implemented with the use of techniques, means that imitate the conditions of real communication. Therefore, it is of particular importance to solve problems related to the creation and use of effective means of teaching the Russian language to students in non-core universities, where a high level of speech skills is the main condition for acquiring deep knowledge in the specialty.
The Strategy for Actions on further development of Uzbekistan in 2017-2021 adopted by the Government on February 7, 2017, outlines five priority areas. This meant the comprehensive development of the higher education system for the period 2017–2021, which includes, in addition to improving the higher education system, strengthening and modernizing the material and technical base of higher educational institutions, equipping them with modern educational, scientific laboratories, means of modern information and communication technologies, etc.
The analysis of the problem related to the professional training and development of university students in the domestic pedagogical science and practice made it possible to establish that by now a scientific fund and experience have been accumulated, which make it possible to identify the patterns and principles of the implementation of the humanistic orientation of the training of specialists. However, this only applies to graduates of language departments. Special studies that consider the problem of developing communicative competence by means of the Russian language in the process of professional training of non-core universities are rare. For example, in the dissertation of Ivkina Ekaterina Andrevna "Development of the speech skills of high school students in the process of writing a review" (2009), the issues of the development of speech of students of secondary schools by means of pedagogical technologies are considered. The work also highlights the system of lessons, including special exercises, didactic material that contributes to the development of literate Russian speech of schoolchildren.
The author rightfully asserts that “the problem of the development of speech at the present stage is of great importance. This is due to a number of reasons due to the change in the socio-cultural state of society, which negatively affected the formation of the linguistic culture of the younger generation. The emerging tendency to simplify speech, the frequent use of jargon and vulgarisms, the unjustified replacement of Russian words with foreign ones, the loss of interest in the native language and culture highlight the need to address issues related to rethinking the problem of developing speech skills. This determines the interest of specialists - philologists, linguists and methodologists in various aspects of the study of the means of language and their introduction into the active vocabulary of the student” .
Ideas presented in the writings of L. S. Vygotsky, P. Ya. Galperin, N. I. Zhinkina, A. A. Leontyev, A. R. Luria and others are aimed at substantiating the psycholinguistic theory of speech activity of students [5; 6; 7; 12; 13].
The development of oral and written speech of students, their functional stylistics were analysed by M. T. Baranov, T. A. Ladyzhenskaya, M. R. Lvov, V. I. Kapinos V. V. Vinogradov, B. N. Golovin, M. N. Kozhina and others.
Modern provisions of the methodology of teaching the Russian language are highlighted in the works of I. A. Zimnyaya, G. N. Pristup, L. P. Fedorenko, Demidova, A. P. Eremeeva, T. A. Ladyzhenskaya, Z. P. Larskikh, G. Ramzayeva and others.
The theory of the regularity of mastering of Russian speech, in the context of the development of speech skills, was considered in the works of L. P. Fedorenko, T. M. Voiteleva, A. D. Deikina, I. Ya. Lerner, M. R. Lvov, E. I. Nikitina, T. M. Pakhnova, T. I. Chizhova, etc.
The dissertation by Neonila Vyacheslavovna Bychkova "Development of Russian oral speech skills in preschool children" for the degree of candidate of pedagogical sciences (2005) highlights the pedagogical and linguodidactic aspects of the formation of Russian oral speech skills in preschool children. The paper also analyzes the linguistic features of the formation of the mechanisms of Russian speech in preschool children, describes the methodology for teaching spoken language in Russian. Considering the issues of teaching the Russian language in preschool educational institutions, the author believes that “in preschool age children are laid that linguistic foundation, on the basis of which the whole process of mastering a second language is built in the future, a positive psychological attitude is created, interest in the language being studied is formed. It is at this age that the Russian language, due to the sensitivity of preschoolers to the acquisition of languages, is easily and painlessly included in the structure of their consciousness” .
Numerous data obtained by researchers in experimental works confirm the idea that no special studies have been carried out over the past 20 years, considering the problem of developing communicative competence in future specialists by means of the Russian language in the process of professional training of non-core universities.
As you know, any communication is, first of all, communication, i.e. exchange of information that is significant for participants in communication. The very concept of "communication" (from the Latin. Communication - message, connection, way of communication, and this word, in turn, comes from communico "do", "connect", "communicate") denotes the semantic aspect of social interaction.
A number of scientists characterize the concept of communication as planning, establishing contact, exchanging information, reflection (Table 1).
Characteristics of the concept of "communication" in the research of scientists
Characteristics of the "communication"
French scientist A. N. Perret-Clemont
A common understanding of the connections of individual actions in relation to the collective product and the subsequent implementation of these connections in the structure of a new joint action.
Russian scientist I. N. Gorelov
The act of communication, ensuring the mediation of the subject-object relations due to the emerging subject-subject relations.
Russian scientist V. R. Zhitnikov
An action that implies communication (speaking, gesturing, facial expressions, etc.)
Russian scientist L. A. Shkatova
Communication channel (organs of speech, hearing, visual, visual-verbal).
Russian scientist M. Ya. Demyanenko
Message as a product of speech, including the sender of the speech, the receiver of the speech, their speech activity.
American scientist L. Klaybol
Multilateral communication, a message that is expressed in connection with specific motives within a specific topic. The motivation for speech can be both internal (emanating from the needs of the person himself) and external (emanating from another person).
As can be seen from Table 1, all scientists are unanimous in the opinion that communication includes the following stages: planning; establishing contact; information exchange; reflection and define communication as (or communicative act).
In our opinion, communicative acts that contribute to the improvement of speech competencies in the Russian language among future specialists in non-core universities can be considered by their types and the following varieties can be distinguished:
1) by content (industrial, practical, everyday, interpersonal, scientific and theoretical, etc.);
2) by the form of contact (direct, mediated);
3) by the type of communication (bidirectional, unidirectional);
4) according to the degree of correspondence of the communicants (high, satisfactory, insignificant, unsatisfactory, negative);
5) by results (from negative to positive).
Communicative competence includes the following structural elements:
knowledge of ways to interact with others;
· Ability and skills to use language in oral speech in accordance with the conditions of communication;
· Practical mastery of dialogical and monologic speech;
· Mastering the culture of oral and written speech;
· Possession of the norms of speech etiquette in situations of educational and everyday communication;
· Possession of skills of work in a group, team;
· The ability to implement educational cooperation;
· Possession of various social roles;
· The ability to critically but not categorically evaluate the thoughts and actions of other people, etc.
However, the concept of communicative competence includes not only mastering the necessary set of speech and language knowledge, but also the formation of skills in the field of practical use of the language in the process of speech activity. This also correlates with the implementation of educational tasks for the formation of a socially active personality, oriented in the modern world. Consequently, communicative competence becomes part of cultural competence, leads to an increase in the general humanitarian culture of the individual, the formation of high creative, ideological and behavioral qualities in her, necessary for her inclusion in various types of activities; assumes knowledge of languages, ways of interacting with surrounding and distant events and people; forms the skills of working in a group, team, possession of various social roles. The student must be able to introduce himself, write a letter, a questionnaire, a statement, ask a question, lead a discussion, etc.
Thus, possession of the listed skills, the ability to establish contact with other people and maintain it was defined as communicative competence by a number of researchers (Yu. M. Zhukov, L. A. Petrovsky, P. V. Rastyannikov, etc.).
In the literature, the concepts of competence and competence are often distinguished. Competence is understood as the ability to perform any activity, including speech. Competence is a content component of such an ability in the form of knowledge, skills and abilities acquired during training. IA Zimnyaya defines competence as “internal, potential, hidden psychological neoplasms: knowledge, perceptions, action programs, systems of values and attitudes, which are then revealed in a person’s competencies” . A. V. Khutorskoy understands competence as a set of interrelated personality traits assigned in relation to a certain range of objects and processes .
M. N. Vyatyutnev defines communicative competence “as the choice of the implementation of programs of speech behavior, depending on the ability to navigate in a particular communication environment; the ability to classify situations depending on the topic, tasks, communicative attitudes that arise in students before the conversation, as well as during the conversation in the process of mutual adaptation” .
Today higher education is called upon to prepare a “new type” specialist capable of prompt and effective implementation of professional tasks. In this regard, the problem of the formation of communicative competence is of particular importance in ensuring the social and professional success of a specialist.
Thus, the dynamic development of modern society and areas of knowledge imposes new requirements on the system of higher professional education, suggesting the formation and development of future specialists of such qualities as mobility, initiative, independence in acquiring new knowledge, readiness for effective interpersonal and professional interaction.