G. B. Pashayeva, Ph.D. in philology sciences
Sumgayit State University,
Actuality of the topic. The term is an active participant of special knowledge that can be usefull in any area of human activity, support to the development of science and education, requiring specific knowledge for adoption of any situation. Different definitions had been givem to the terms in linguistics. Due to Superanskaya, the term is the basic element concept of linguistics which based on the specific goals. Due to M. E. Ahmedov’s thoughts (who had conducted his research on “concept of term”) the term is multifaceted, multiple and multifunctional concept. According to the rules we can say that, term is a word and word combinations which explains concepts in scientific, technichal, economical and cultural spheres.
So, the functions of terms are: nominative, informative, reprezentative and emotionality. In comparison with simple (ordinary) words terms are informative function carriers. Informativeness turns the terms into a dynamic lexical unit, because of the constant love of human to get new information. Term has a specilal terminology meaning, and it is lexical unit of any languages. This meaning is also expressed with special formulas (for example, with (via) reductions or acronyms). The activity and development of term depends on action branch and development dynamics where they belong. That’s why terms and their functional features of creation process had been defined non-linguistic factors. If we do not take into account extra-lingustic factors, term will loose its informativeness. Thus, terms should reply exist level and demand of science regarding lexics concepts exactly and completly. Lecxical unit which accepted in this branch can be accepted as an unclear word or expression of other concept.
For example, the word “mouse” is used in information technologies branch in different meaning, it is used as a part of computer manager, mouse is used in zoology in another meaning, such as alive. (mouse is alive, an animal in zoology).
Mouse is a part of computer in computer technologies branch. We use both words – “sichan” and “mouse” in Azerbaijani too. There is an equivalent of this word in Russian “мышь” or “мышка” which assimilated from the English language. These words loan words and they had been assimilated in our language. This case is followed in Russian language, too. But it is used in different from Azerbaijan language. The word "mouse" taken from English and Russian languages, it is not used as a term of the zoological equivalent. This case (equivalent) is followed only information technology branch. Is it right to be for terminology of some lexical equivalents of one word? As it is well known, terminology "likes" concreteness, monosemanticness and conciseness.
A commission had been established for providing the development and regulation of terminologycal lexicology in the Republic of Azerbaijan that controls the vocabulary and terminology, as well as dealing with the unification of the terms. The need to create the commission, to eliminate of the above mentioned confusion and contradictions. Invention in technology and science, discoveries need to create new terms for the new concepts. Of course, as the term has specific characters for scientific style, the people who are busy on science communicate with each other on this way.
Terms which have great importance in the field of education can be indicator of cultural and scientific development of language. The term creation is a part of word creation of the language and it is contiuned process in the language. Adoption and making obey of new terms to the language is one of the main problems in Linguistics.
As above mentioned the words comes from one language to another by the same case, after some period the words follow the rules and norms, regulations of the entered language, some of those are kept as. This process depends on the charachter of loanwords. If the new acquisitions transmit in verbal (oral) form, they are changed, follow the phonetics regulations of the language. Subject to change is usually brought into conformity with the laws of phonetic language, written acquisitions are distinguished by the relative stability and they are less prone to changes. As a rule, terms concerning the development of science and technology are got in written form.
Therefore, such type of they acquisitions which belongs to different fields of science are less changed, assimilation of terms by using of different methods and making obey language rules takes a certain time.The process of term assimilation in the language is called an unification. But we should take into account that, settlement of the terms, unification and standardization are differentiated concepts in Literature. Collecting and choosing of the terms are commented in different methods in linguistic literature. Due to the thought of some linguistics, these processes are the same, and there is no need to seperate them. But another one’s rightly notes that these processes are fundamentally different from each other [1, s. 150].
Terms are collected from the different recources, then after the collection, begins the choice process of these terms. Among the early collected materials can be terminology of different branch and their synonims, dublets and different options. Systematizing of terms, choosing of more correct and right versions, their provement (to prove the demands of the term given requirmenets on their registration process) are the main demands for the registration of terms. Registered terms should be right and clarify and their meaning must be clarifing when they registered into the specified area terminology. At the same time, the main condition of each term to be accurate term.Term have to express the concept exactly right. Terms are devided into two groups:
1) Terms which correctly directes the opening of the terminological meaning;
2) Terms which does not correctly directe the opening of the terminological meaning [2, s. 30] .
Some of the terms do not sometimes give any information about the meaning of the terminology or the information is incomplete. Taking of these account M.İsmayılova devides terms into 4 (four) groups for the correctness degree: “during the research process, it is clear that there is incomplete terms that do not give information about the meaning of the terminology. For example, a parallelogram term. Parallel component imagines incomplete expression about parallel. Term does not give any information about parallel of opposite sides and square of the figure.
There is not any information about the meaning of trapeze. The term of trapeze does not give any information about the meaning of trapeze. Taking account the sayings, we consider that it is right to join the terms in 4 groups” [3, p. 153]. Researchers and lexicographer should be have a special ability in choosing of loanwords. As we mentioned there is not any languages withought loanwords. We can face with loanwords particular in terminology. It is not accidental, because most times terminology layer of the language is an international. Due to Russian linguistic V. P. Danielko thoughts, loanwords with European origin play an important role in the formation of scientific style. “Acquisitions – main part of loan words entered from European languages and this process is going on. These languages – German, French and English languages had completed special lexics of the language at different times and different intensity. In fact, loanwords had played a special role in the formation of special lexicology of scientific language, at present their role is increasing” [4, p. 119].
Scientific researhces is conducted in all the world and this development creates new concepts, meanings and terminology units as well. New scientific units of the language enter vocabulary content of other languages in information exchange.
So, scientific exchanges, googlings (resaerching) creates initial condition for obtaining of terminology units. When the word or terms enter another language, they enrich the vocabulary content of that language. As we have already noted, it is necessary loanword concept in the terminology, there is no language wothout loanwords.
Loanwords should be completly assimilated words. Tha man who use this word, he/she should not understant foreign origin of the word. Acquisition (loanwords) and foreign words are differentiated for their use concepts in linguistics. A word is considered as an loanword after assimilation process. Acquisition is expected to be passed by the count of misappropriation of compliance with the rules of the language. Assimilation meaning is adoption of rules by loanwords. Sometimes there is some words in the language that can be observed in the years that their foreign character and not subject to the internal rules of the language. After making obey the rules of the language, some loanwords need a special research as a foreign word. Linguistic literature is not meaningful attitude the adoption of loanwords.
Some linguists consider that only words which makes obey to the rules of the language in phonetical and qrammary point of view are loanwords. Adoption of word is the main process in lexicology. Adoption of words in phonetical and graphical point of view is also participate in the process. Because adoption process of word ends when those words learned in the language in phonetical and graphical aspects and they remain as well as they were in semantic aspect.
If the word from another language was included (entered) to a certain semantic group and synonym, homonym line in Azerbaijan language, if they widely used in scientific-litrerary style, if it can create as free and stable word combinations in orthoepic, spelling and semantic aspects in the vocabulary, these words can be considered such as assimilated words.
Such a conclusion can be mentioned the fact that, the any word is adopted and appropriated to the language over the years, sometimes this process can take centuries. For example, if we review the last orphographic vocabulary of the Azerbaijani language we will see this. So, the number of changes had been done since 2004. The verb term had been given as a verb, “kompyuter” had been given as “kompüter”, and metafora (metaphora) had been given as metafor (metaphor). The term based on these words had been established with this principles. If we pay attention we can see adoption process on the basis of these words. As we know, the Arabian origin word – the verb was written via apostrophe and this sign meant long pronunciation of letter “e”. However, the cancellation of apostrophe in our language, accelerated Arabism process. In result the words like a verb (fel means a verb) began to use with the rule and norms of our language. We can already say that assimilation process of the words had been ended.
The same process happens with metaphor term. In contrast to the words in Arabian origin, the process of entering words based on European origin to our language began later. We should mention that there are many turkish origin words in our language. The words which end with vowel letter after some period – after including of our language vowel letter falls.
For example, the words “apteka, anketa, maşina” – (a drugstore, a questionaire and a machine) had lost the end vowel. The same process has been going on, now. A word compuer is a process of later and it is used in several version in our language. Giving preference a word “ computer” in the last word in the dictionary can be linked to adapt to the more general principles.
So in 2004 dictionary, the same type of term “produser”, “super computer” was used for (through) the vawel “ü”, but a word “computer” was used through (for) word combination “yu”. Due to our opinion, this option is more appropriate to refer to the internal grammatic rules of the language. This option is based on harmony norms. However, preference is given to a word “kompüter” in the dictionary. But the choice problem of a word “kompüter” had been solved. I preferred this option rather than the workers. Because employees who works in this area prefer to this version – “kompüter”. This version was used and published in the terminology vocabularies. After a certain time, the loan words undergoing some change. For example, let’s review a word “abreviatura – abbreviations”. How it was used in our language. The term is also multi-obtional in our language. This word is used as “acronyms” in Italian language (in Latin abbrevio – means shorten word). This term enters the Russian language by the same way. As the word was used to the same form before, later it was used in the form of abreviatura (abbreviations). This word is used as “abreviatura” in orphographic vocabularies of 2004 [5, p. 20], 2013 [6, p. 24]. We see opposite of this in the vocabularies that prepared regarding abbreviations in Azerbaijan language. So, this word is given with double “b” in the vocabulary titled “Shortening words (acronyms) which used in the periodical press", but it is used in only one letter – “b” in "Abbreviations Dictionary" which published in 2005. Generally, using of similar consonants in the word order in our language is not strong. Such type of loan words entered our language is adopted by time.
Conclusion. Adoption of European origin loan words in Azerbijan language is going in several directions. "The process had been gone in four directions: 1) the phonetic point of view; 2) graphical terms; 3) phonetical-graphical point of view; 4) semantic point of view.
Phonetic appropriation developes in two directions: a) verbal phonetic learning; b) writing phonetic appropriation (the literary language) " [7, p. 21]. Generallizing of whole process of learning is a continuous process and it is the main factor in the development of the language. In this point of view, linguistics is always interested in following of this process and resaerching proccess of loan words appropriation.
1. Ismayılova M. A. Main issues of Terminology. – Baku : Elm (Science), 1999. – 100 p.
2. Brief handbook on the development and streamlining of the scientific and technical terminology. – М. : Наука (Science), 1979. – 128 p.
3. Ismayılova M. A. Linguistic analysis of Azerbaijan language terminalogy. – Baku : Ozan, 1997. – 268 p.
4. Danilenko V. P. Russian terminology. Experience of linguistic description. – Моscow : Наука (Science), 1977. – 246 p.
5. Spelling dictionary of Azerbaijani language. – Baku, Lider, 2004. – 728 p.
6. Azərbaycan dilinin orfoqrafiya lüğəti. – Baku :”Şərq-Qərb” (East-West printing House), 2013. – 836 s.
Garayev A. H. Lexical loan words based on European origin in modern Azerbiajan language. – Baku : “Azərbaycan Universiteti (University of Azerbaijan)”, 1989. – 95 p.
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