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Каталог статей из сборников научных конференций и научных журналов- Highlander as a linguocultural type

Highlander as a linguocultural type

E. I. Burganova, student,

Yelabuga Institute, Kazan Federal University,

Yelabuga, Tatarstan, Russia

 

The identification of certain characteristics of the behavior of a representative of a particular ethnosocial group allows us to reproduce the linguistic and cultural type. According to V. I. Karasik, the linguocultural type is a typified personality associated with the considered ethno-social group and characterized by the characteristic features of the behavior model for this group [1, p. 310]. Therefore, the concept of linguistic and cultural type is closely related to the ideas of a particular culture and its representatives.

The purpose of this article is to model the linguistic and cultural type of Highlander. The relevance of the topic is determined by the definition of the image of the culture of its bearer and illustrating the ethnic and social specificity of society.

The essence of the concept Highlander is expressed in the following definitions:

1.                Someone who comes from the Scottish Highlands [Macmillan Online Dictionary].

2.                A person who comes from the Scottish Highlands [Cambridge Dictionary].

3.                А native of the Highlands of Scotland [Collins Dictionary].

4.                А member of a Scottish Highland regiment or battalion [Collins Dictionary].

5.                А soldier in a Scottish regiment from the Highlands [6].

In addition, the following lexical units have been found as lexemes with synonymous meaning: mountaineer, tartan, hillman, Highland Scot, Scottish Highlander, mountain dweller, Scot, Scotchman, Scotsman [6].

The definitional analysis shows that the generic seme of these lexical units is relatedness to Scotland. Hence, the basis of the semantic structure of the word Highlander is the origin of a person on a geographical basis. The differential seme is represented by several elements, some of which are military-themed: a military combat unit of the Scottish Highlands, a soldier of a Scottish regiment from the Scottish Highlands. The differential semes of this lexical unit are also: relatedness to the Scottish Highlands, a resident of the Scottish highlands, a tartan, a Highlander, a native of the Highlands.

Historical account shows that the Highlanders, who inhabited the Northern part of Scotland, and, according to many classifications, the Western coastal Islands of the Hebrides, Arran and Bute, were mainly rural people. Their culture and language were predominantly Gaelic. At the end of the eighteenth century, the Highlanders still followed a clan system that had existed for several hundred years. The clan was governed by a single family, from which its chief came. Relatives and other clan members lived together in agricultural settlements that functioned as collectives or joint farms. The clan system began to slowly erode during the reign of James I, who distrusted the Highlanders so much that he ordered the chieftains to leave their clans to prevent a conspiracy against him. This collapse of the clan system accelerated in the years after the battle of Culloden, when the British government introduced restrictive laws that undermined the power of clan chieftains and Gaelic culture, including the prohibition of clan tartans (tartan textiles) and bagpipes [3].

According to the writings of the XV–XVI centuries tartan was a significant attribute of the clans. However, the most frequent mention of tartan dates from the XVII–XVIII centuries. Next, we turn to the painting "Highland Chieftain", which depicts a representative of the Scottish highlanders in traditional attire. The first image of the tartan by the English artist John Michael Wright (John Michael Wright) "Highland Chieftain" in 1660 suggests that the ornament was also used on the kilt, a mantle worn over the shoulder and across the chest as part of the Scottish national dress, and on stockings. However, the ornament on the image differs from the tartan of the modern sample.

A significant number of eighteenth-century portraits attested to the description of tartan in painting; however, portraits dating from the second half of the eighteenth century show that a Highlander had the opportunity to wear tartans of different colors and designs.

Highland dress and tartan were prohibited after the Jacobite uprising in 1745. However, the mountain regiments of the late XVIII century wore tartan, so military tartans uniform appeared. It is believed that the military revival of tartan largely peaked during the state visit of George IV to Edinburgh in 1822. Interest in tartan did not weaken throughout incoming decades. Thanks to the work of artists, writers, manufacturers and tailors tartan firmly took the position of the Scottish sign [4].

The study of the linguistic and cultural type of the Scottish Highlander is not possible without the determination of the characteristics of their basic features. Thus the Highlanders of Scotland were a warlike people, distinguished by bravery and devotion. Demonstration of prowess was considered an honor for the representatives of the folk. They remained faithful to their duty – to follow the chieftain. The Scottish Highlander was convinced that to give his life for his chieftain was the goal for which they were born. In addition, according to the analyzed sources, honor for the Highlanders had more value than their life. Thus, the main characteristics of the personality of the Scottish Highlander are courage, loyalty and commitment to honor [5]. Perhaps, this exact data about the features of a Highlander personality has become reason, why the image of a Highlander becomes the key and significant figure in the films: Highlander, Highlander II: The Quickening, Highlander III: The Sorcerer, Highlander IV: The Endgame, Highlander V: the Source, – the series Highlander: The Series, – literary works of Donna Grant: Wicked Highlander, Dangerous Highlander, Darkest Highlander, Forbidden Highlander, Untamed Highlander, Shadow Highlander, – and Monica McCarty: Highlander Untamed, Highlander Unchained, Highlander Unmasked, etc. A large number of public institutions around the world are called Highlander: pub The Highlander in Paris, cafe Ardgay Stores & Highland Cafe in Scotland, cafe MC Highlander in Ufa, cafe Highlander Cafe in Crystal River, USA. Besides, The Scottish Highlander Guesthouse is located in the community of Mauth in Germany. In addition, in Scotland there is a museum Gordon Highlanders Regimental Museum, located in Aberdeen, and in England – the Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regimental Museum, located in Kent, Maidstone.

The data of the analyzed literature allows us to conclude that the linguistic and cultural type of the Highlander represents the image of a militant and brave resident of the Scottish Highlands. The studied type is characterized by such a typical external attribute as tartan. The main associative features of the linguistic and cultural type of the Scottish Highlander are also the clan system, honor and loyalty to their chieftain and clan.

Bibliography

  1. Карасик А. В. Фанат как типаж современной массовой культуры // Аксиологическая лингвистика: лингвокультурные типажи. – Волгоград : Парадигма, 2005. – С. 269–282.
  2. Шевелева А. С. «Kidult» как лингвокультурный типаж // Гуманитарные научные исследования. 2016. № 10 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2016/10/16866 (дата обращения: 26.03.2019).
  3. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Highland-Clearances (дата обращения: 26.06.2019).
  4. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/tartan-textile-design (дата обращения: 26.06.2019).
  5. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/uk-highlander.htm (дата обращения: 26.06.2019).
  6. [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://thesaurus.plus/related/highlander/scottish_highlander (дата обращения: 24.09.2019).
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