I. A. Parkhomenko, candidate of pedagogical sciences,
A. O. Vorobyeva, magister of pedagogy and psychology,
Akhmet Baitursynov Kostanay State University,
High demands of society on the organization of the upbringing and education of modern children make to look for new, more effective psychological and pedagogical approaches to this process. In this way, the issue of the readiness of preschoolers to learning at school acquires special importance. Success of further education of children depends on its solution.
The conceptual foundations of learning and preschoolers’ upbringing in Kazakhstan education system, provide for the quality increase, determine the formation of communicative competence as the main condition for school adaptation.
Communicative readiness of the child to learning at school provides the success of his further education and assimilation of the curriculum.
All this explains the relevance of search for new forms and methods for the formation of communicative components of readiness to educational activity among high school pupils.
In order to develop the child's readiness for the forthcoming schooling, all the more communicative readiness, it is necessary to work purposefully, beginning with the preschool childhood, since there the foundation of the personality is laid.
In the development process of the child, he assimilates social norms and rules, improves his behavior. Moreover, the process of upbringing is not passive, but is carried out as a result of active interaction of the child with the social surroundings. The development of the communicative sphere of children is considered in the general context of its socialization, taking into account the features of relationship-building, the complications of the nature of communication with adults and peers (O. Dyachenko, E. Kravtsova, M. Lisina, T. Repina etc.) [1, р. 56].
Referring to M. Kagan, by communication we mean the information links of the subject with a particular object (human, animal, machine) [2, р. 19].
As a result of communication, the child takes possession of the most important skills of mental activity, among which the first place belongs to speech development that occurs in contacts with adults and peers as the harnessing of the most important communicative operation, which then begins to be applied to the sphere of cognitive activity.
The formation of communicative readiness of preschoolers to learning at school consists of several blocks:
- information communicative block operates the mechanism for receiving and storing information;
- affective communicative block is connected with the child's experience of his relationships with other people;
- regulatory communicative block has a managing impact, adjusting behavior of the child in the process of transfer and assimilation of information.
On this basis we can conclude that the problem of the formation of the children’s relationship can be solved in communal work, in the class, in the game, where such favorable environment are created for establishing good communication with peers and adults, forming moral aspects, feelings, collective experiences for understanding their own actions and children's actions.
In the game, the child's mind is prepared for the upcoming changes of the standard of living, relationships with peers and adults, attributes of personality that are important for the future pupil are formed as well.
Playing, the child learns how to act in a peer group, to subordinate his personal wishes to the interests of his friends, to comply with the rules, to strive to overcome difficulties encountered.
In the game can be formed such qualities as independence, initiative, organization, can be developed creative abilities and a skill to work collectively. All of these are necessary for the future first-grader.
Therefore, the teacher's task is to create conditions for filling the game experience of preschool children with a social value content. The sense of the game should be to find effective ways of regulation of interaction with peers. This is what makes to form the communication skills
In a joint game which aimed at establishing mutual agreement among the children, understanding of the rules and life views are assimilated. This process is possible, when teacher uses didactic, outdoors, folk games, dramatizations and drama games as well.
We also consider that in the game teacher-pupil interaction, there must necessarily be dialogues, telling and making up stories, reading of artistic works, making the visual arts, looking at drawings and photographs, painting on free and given theme, simulations exercises, sketches, improvisations, excursions, etc.
In this way, preschoolers learn to set and solve communicative tasks that need to be gradually complicated.
We emphasis the following aspects that are necessary conditions for the formation of communicative readiness of preschoolers for educational activities:
- Teaching material used by teacher should be aimed at solving communication and speech problems and be accessible for understanding;
- The teacher should take a part in the dialogue on an equal basis with the children, listen to them and participate in the search of solutions with them together;
- The teacher should be able to ingratiate himself to the child, to interest and make him willing to solve communicative tasks;
- Work on the formation of communication readiness should be systematic.
So, communicative readiness includes the formation of such qualities, which can help children to communicate with other children and their teacher.
By the school age, children should know how to use some flexible ways of establishing the relationships, ways which can help the child to go into the children's society
The communicative readiness implies the development of children’s need for communication, the ability to obey the interests and customs of the children's group, to be ready to cope with the role of the pupil in different school situations.
One of the effective ways of forming the communicative readiness of preschoolers to educational activities is the use of communicative tasks in game activities.
1. Dyachenko, O. M., Lavrentyev Т. V. Mental development of preschoolers. – M. : Education, 2003. – 127 p.
Kagan M. S. The world of communication. – M. : Аcademy, 2010. – 122 р.