A. K. Ivantsova, master student,
ORCID 0000-0003-3445-6519, e-mail: email@example.com,
E. V. Zvonova, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
ORCID 0000-0001-9271-8367, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
Moscow Pedagogical State University,
For a consultant in the field of human resources, it is necessary to have effective methods for selecting and evaluating personnel. Each of the applicants has certain characteristics, for example, age, gender, physique and others. Psychological characteristics are divided into two groups: personality – as a character and cognitive component – the ability to perceive, process, provide information.
The cognitive component cannot be diagnosed separately from the personality factor. It is found that with high intellectual abilities, a person has low stress resistance, fast fatigability and a stably low pace of work. In the working process, the effectiveness of such an employee will be low despite the fact that the diagnosis of cognitive abilities will show a high result in intelligence .
The indicator of the level of development of intelligence occupies a large place in the evaluation system of candidates for a position in the organization.
The coefficient of intellectual development was first used in the works of the German psychologist William Stern in 1912 and was defined as the ratio of chronological to psychological age multiplied by 100. The indicator turned out to be stable, independent of the person’s age . During the experiments, it was found that a person who successfully coped with one type of task often also successfully performed others, sometimes clearly different from the first tasks. Later, by Charles Spearman, the term "general intelligence" was singled out. General intelligence occupies the highest level of the hierarchy, which also includes several levels of specific factors, this model of cognitive abilities is often used in the selection of personnel .
There are several definitions of “recruitment”:
1. The primary substance of the recruitment process;
2. A set of measures carried out in stages and applied in order to establish suitability for the performance of certain tasks and responsibilities;
3. "Recruitment" is the creation of a list of highly qualified employees for subsequent selection;
4. The process during which the organization selects from the list of applicants those potential employees who are best suited to the vacant jobs .
Thus, recruiting is the process of attracting candidates for work within the organization.
The organization and method of staff selection in the organization depends on the type of corporate culture.
So for organizations with a predominant bureaucratic type, it is better to rely on the selection of personnel for the vacancy, and for a participatory type of culture in the organization, the selection of personnel taking into account the individual characteristics of the applicant will be more advantageous.
It is worth paying attention to the stage of development at which the organization is located. At the stage of intensive growth, when the company needs creative, proactive employees, it is better to take advantage of the selection of personnel oriented to applicants. At the stage of stable functioning, when business processes are debugged, and job descriptions are prescribed – for a vacancy. In a crisis situation or during a period of stagnation – select personnel for superior quality indicators.
In the recruitment procedure, we can distinguish the main blocks:
• Competence and assessment of job requirements.
This is an analysis of regulatory documents and job descriptions. The basic qualities and skills that a candidate should possess are determined. Much attention is paid to the goals and objectives of the company at this stage of its existence. No less important role is played by the features of the existing relations in the labor collective.
• Development of requirements for a candidate applying for a position.
At this stage, a set of requirements for the applicant is being developed. The complex includes not only psychological, but also professional requirements, they are determined on the basis of job descriptions and regulatory documents, as well as the labor market, working conditions, wages.
One of the options for the personnel selection model was developed by Professor A. P. Egorshin and includes 15 elements .
1. Personnel data is appearance, gender, marital status, age.
Sources: official profile, curriculum vitae, interview, document on education, photograph.
2. Worker experience: public, life, state.
Through interviews and questionnaires.
3. Professional knowledge in specific disciplines.
As a result of business games.
4. Professional skills: a set of managerial work that an employee can perform.
Job interview and business game.
5. Personal qualities: a set of business qualities and shortcomings of the employee.
Determined by psychological testing or survey.
6. Psychology of personality: temperament, motivation, personality type, intelligence.
The method of observation and psychological testing of the employee.
8. Level of qualification.
It is determined by the acquired specialty and advanced training (if any).
9. Service career.
Based on an assessment of the employee’s potential and his interest in career growth.
They are determined by the method of interview and questionnaire.
11. Bad habits: addiction to alcohol, smoking, etc.
By questionnaire and observation.
12. Labor organization: transport, premises, technical equipment.
Set according to the standards of the organization of the workplace.
13. Remuneration: remuneration, salary, bonuses.
According to the staffing and average income of people working in this region.
14. Social benefits: food, branded clothing, travel, etc.
By interviewing the employee and average payments from the social development fund.
15. Social guarantees: pension, benefits in case of dismissal, disability benefits, insurance.
Competition for the post is a special procedure. The selection of candidates for the position has several stages of interviewing and other procedures and methods. As a result, the manager decides to hire a candidate .
The consultant can help with the development of job details and the required person, and can also specify how to advertise a job. This may include the most common and cost-effective method – using word of mouth, but may also include using public or private employment agencies, or advertising in the local press or radio, as well as through well-known sites. Organizations can also use the Internet to recruit staff. This gives the advantage that advertising is cheap. The disadvantage of such methods is that they can attract a significant number of responses that require careful verification and processing .
Recruitment specialist must take into account the requirements for the selection criteria for candidates for the position: sufficiency, adequacy of the criteria, reliability, validity, completeness .
Validity is the conformity of selection criteria to the requirements of the position and the content of the work itself. Inconsistency of criteria to requirements and content leads to errors in the selection of personnel. For example, if punctuality will be set as the most important criterion for hiring a managerial position, then it is likely that a person will not be able to cope with complex organizational work that requires developed logical and strategic thinking.
Completeness is when the selection criteria contain all the characteristics necessary for the job. For example, a managerial position, relying only on seniority, not taking into account the ability to interact with staff, means putting the risk of hiring a person who does not know how to organize the work process.
Reliability is the stability of results obtained using this criterion .
The sufficiency of the criteria is determined by the fact that the number of criteria should be clearly indicated, too many will not allow you to choose a candidate who would be suitable for all selection criteria.
Russian companies use such personnel selection methods as:
1. Interview .
This method makes it possible to analyze the behavior of the candidate, as well as, using diagnostic topics, evaluate his competence.
There are several types of interviews:
• An unstructured interview is a type of interview in which open-ended questions are asked. The candidate’s desire to talk more about himself is encouraged, the situation is as informal as possible, there is no clear structure for the interview. The interviewer sets only the direction of the conversation, topics that are most important for the organization. For example, about the prospects for a new position, the reason for leaving the old place of work, the desire to achieve results in this organization. Much attention is paid to the ability of the applicant to correctly and clearly express their thoughts, express interesting ideas. However, due to the lack of structure of this method, it is more difficult to compare the answers of candidates. It is in this approach that the “stress interview” is most often used, its task is to assess the behavior and reaction of the applicant to the stress factor (for example, if the interviewer pretends to be annoyed or did not hear what was said several times).
• A structured interview is a series of pre-prepared questions that are the same for all candidates directly related to the position. In most cases, questions are divided into three blocks: questions that determine the willingness of the applicant to adapt to the requirements of work and new working conditions associated with knowledge in the field of work, modeling work situations. Since candidates are asked the same questions, this simplifies the processing of results and the final decision on hiring. However, the lack of flexibility of this method is its drawback.
2. Testing .
There is a popular method for selecting staff. It allows you to assess the status of the applicant at the moment. With the help of testing, you can find out the features of attention, memory, speed of work, the ability to quickly navigate, personality traits, a tendency to learn, leadership potential, etc.
It is conditionally possible to divide tests into categories:
• Personal. They are aimed at identifying the character traits and personal characteristics of the respondent. These include the Kettell multivariate personality questionnaire, the MBTI test and the Myers-Briggs typology, as well as tests for aggression, self-control ability, professional skills and qualities.
• Intelligent. They are used to identify the level of education and intelligence, tests for memory and attention can also be included here. An important indicator for hiring a managerial position will be the result of the level of analytical thinking, which is understood as the ability to systematize and analyze large amounts of information. Also, important parameters will be knowledge of the native and English languages, the ability to communicate logically and consistently, have sufficient vocabulary, and understand the opponent’s statements.
• Interpersonal relationships. This includes tests for conflict, leadership style, communication style with people, the ability to compromise. Particular attention is paid to the tests for conflict, as relationships in the team affect the effectiveness and efficiency.
• Professional. Used to determine the professional skills of the candidate.
Recently, automated tests have become more popular, job seekers pass them on a computer. Later, the computer processes the test results and produces a qualitative and quantitative result .
3. Profile (questionnaire) .
This method is used to collect and analyze the personal data of the applicant, such as last name, first name, gender, age, qualification, professional skills.
The questionnaire questions are formulated neutrally and suggest any answer or lack of answer. The content is approved by the organization and varies depending on the position, often, the higher the position, the more complicated and more detailed the questionnaire. It may contain data on the number of days of work at the last place of work, the number of passes, etc. .
4. Polygraph .
This is one of the most expensive methods for selecting personnel. It allows you to establish whether the applicant gives true information about himself or is trying to distort something. The device measures physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate, cardiovascular activity, etc. The questions asked are clear, understandable to the applicant, suggesting a definite answer and do not contain emotional criteria (“dislike” – “like”).
5. Graphological method .
This is a controversial and less common method of selecting personnel. It involves the study of the relationship of the psychophysiological state of a person and fine motor skills. With this method, it is believed that it is the brain that directs both our consciousness and the subconscious, he is also responsible for motility. The brain determines our ability to think, concentrate, perceive, also energy, flexibility, sociability, accuracy, pedantry, initiative, stress resistance, etc. Thus, the results of the analysis are a comprehensive psychological portrait.
The attractiveness of the graphological method lies in its low costs, but its ambiguity and a high degree of risk should be taken into account. This method can be used in the early stages of selection, but due to the high probability of error, it does not have decisive significance when hiring.
6. Assessment center .
This is a comprehensive evaluation technology. She does not have any one clearly structured model, the system is dynamic and not stereotyped, she has many options depending on the specifics of the position or company. During the assessment, the candidate performs tasks that simulate situations in the workplace, thus demonstrating his personal and professional qualities.
7. Analysis of personal data.
In conjunction with the above selection stages, it provides the following information: does the level of education meet the selection criteria for the position, is the candidate ready for overtime work, is there any experience in this field, etc. .
Personnel selection methods can be active and passive, and the sources of staff recruitment can be external and internal.
Active methods of selection – they are usually resorted to when the demand for labor, especially skilled labor, exceeds its supply on the labor market. First of all, this is establishing contacts with those who are of interest to her as potential employees. It is usually carried out directly in educational institutions. Take over employees from competitors, through state employment centers and through private intermediary firms. It is comparatively cheaper to attract employees through personal contacts of working personnel. Perhaps through presentations and participation in job fairs, shaping your image.
Passive methods of personnel selection are resorted to when the supply of labor in the labor market exceeds demand. One of the varieties of passive methods of attracting staff is the placement of announcements of vacant positions, requirements for candidates, and conditions of remuneration.
The external selection tools that are most often used include:
1. Announcement in the media.
2. Departure of the organization’s employees to educational institutions.
4. State employment agencies.
5. Employment agencies.
The decision to hire a candidate is the most important point, the result of the selection process, it should be as objective as possible.
The following options for a conclusion on hiring are possible:
· Absolutely suitable – these are the people who most successfully cope with work tasks. Conditionally suitable – performing their work they can make a mistake that does not greatly affect efficiency. Definitely unsuitable - Mistakes too much reduce overall performance .
· Suitable, unsuitable, uncertain forecast .
· The greatest benefits when enrolling in the number of trainees. Recommended for admission on a common basis. Recommended only for high results in competitive exams. Not recommended .
· Recommended. Conditionally recommended. Not recommended .
Recruiting and evaluating staff in an organization can be a daunting task, but when you use the right method, the results will pay off. The key to effective staffing is how true the selection will be.
A review of the current methods presented in the article can help organizations improve the quality of selection, and ultimately increase organizational productivity while retaining these new employees.
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