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Каталог статей из сборников научных конференций и научных журналов- Corruption in the Republic of Kazakhstan - the global problem of society

ET-1-18
Чешский научный журнал
Ekonomické trendy. - 2018. - № 1
01.01-28.02.2018

Corruption in the Republic of Kazakhstan - the global problem of society

Zh. Abuzyarova, Master, ORCID 0000-0002-2067-6046,

e-mail: zhake001@mail.ru

G. Kenzhegaliyeva, Master, ORCID 0000-0001-9563-6850,

e-mail: k.gulbarshin_81@mail.ru

Atyrau State University named after Khalel Dosmukhamedov,

Atyrau, Kazakhstan

 

In the world community at the present stage, the Republic of Kazakhstan is a brand that causes respect and trust throughout the world.

Over the years of independence, Kazakhstan has built a successfully functioning market economy model, overcoming the negative consequences of the global crisis. It should be clearly understood that the achievements of our country is a reliable basis, but not a guarantee of success in the future. Kazakhstan needs a new quality of development, and in our country there are all the necessary resources to enter the number of leaders of the new world. For this purpose, it is necessary to focus the maximum attention on the solution of specific tasks specified in the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan - "New opportunities for development in the conditions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution".

The message of the Head of State is a unique program document providing system modernization of Kazakhstan - this is a real way to solve urgent issues, because it is during crisis moments that it is necessary to consolidate and find the right solutions and new opportunities.

The implementation of 10 main directions, outlined by the President, is called upon to accelerate Kazakhstan's entry into the list of 30 most developed countries in the world. The main conclusion of the Message is the synergy of efforts of all citizens of Kazakhstan, since the country's main priorities are unshakable, the strategic guidelines of the state remain the same. And, undoubtedly, the annual appeal is a systemic continuation of that work, which was designated by the President in the Plan of the Nation.

One of the priorities directions of the President's Address is the fight against corruption and the rule of law [1].

The concept of "corruption" is often associated with our citizens with the notion of "public service." It is no accident that the fight against corruption is set in Kazakhstan at the state-political level and is controlled directly by the head of state. Corruption is a painful phenomenon that is experienced by absolutely all countries and gradually it turns from a domestic problem into a global problem.

In the message to the people of Kazakhstan "Strategy" Kazakhstan-2050 ": New political course of the held state", President of the country N. A. Nazarbayev noted that "the State and society should stand united against corruption. Corruption is not just an offense. It undermines faith in the effectiveness of the state and is a direct threat to national security" [2].

Kazakhstan occupies one of the leading positions among the CIS countries in terms of the level of anti-corruption activity. The country is taking certain measures to combat corruption. 10 years ago, the RK Law "On Combating Corruption" (from 02.07.1998 No. 267) was adopted for the first time in the post-Soviet space. Public councils have been formed with the participation of deputies of all levels, political parties, non-governmental organizations, national cultural centers, the business community, youth and professional organizations, academia, and the media. A special body was created – the Agency for Combating Economic and Corruption Crimes (Financial Police).

Moreover, one of the main tools for implementing the anti-corruption strategy is the Commission for Combating Corruption, acting under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Also, the head of state imposed a lifetime ban on engaging in any positions in state bodies and organizations for persons previously dismissed from work for committing a corruption offense. Everyone should remember that those who commit any unlawful act are completely deprived of all privileges.

Kazakhstan's high macroeconomic indicators are not consistent with the pace of corruption. According to this indicator, in the corruption perception index, according to the results of the Transparency International study, Kazakhstan is not in the best position. The corruption perception index examines 180 countries and territories according to the perceived level of corruption in the public sector of the country from the position of experts and entrepreneurs. The corruption perception index uses a scale from 0 to 100 points, where 0 means the highest perceived level of corruption, and 100 – the lowest.

In 2016, Kazakhstan, according to research, occupied the 131st line out of 176 and scored 29 points out of 100 possible. A year earlier (in 2015), the country scored 28 points and was on the 123rd place. The rollback to the eight positions in the international organization is attributed not to the deterioration of the situation in the republic, but to the inclusion of new research countries in the rating. By the end of 2017, Kazakhstan scored 31 points and shared 122 places with such countries as Azerbaijan, Djibouti, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova and Nepal.

According to the Agency for Civil Service and Counteracting Corruption in Kazakhstan in 2017, 1835 corruption offenses were recorded, the total damage from which amounted to KZT15.8 bn., Of which KZT14 bn. (88 %) was reimbursed to the state. At the same time, the number of offenses compared to 2016 decreased by 18 %. The largest number of crimes is related to bribery – 40 %, or 988 facts, theft – 33 %, or 808 facts, and abuse of official powers – 11 %, or 261 facts. About 400 corruption crimes committed during the implementation of various state programs were identified, damages amounting to KZT5.3 bn. The most part of corruption crimes in 2017 is accounted for employees of akimats – 718 facts. According to the employees of the internal affairs agencies, 323 facts were registered and 239 facts on employees of the quasi-public sector. Corruption risks in the spheres of education (201 facts), agriculture (183 facts) of construction (158 facts) and health care (101 facts) continue to remain high [3].

Now all countries, including the most advanced ones, are reviewing their models of fighting corruption in the face of new challenges, adopting new laws and regulations on toughening responsibility for corruption.

However, it is not yet possible to say that the anti-corruption system works fully and efficiently. The statistics of corruption offenses remains negative.

In view of this, one of the priority tasks set by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the improvement of anti-corruption legislation: "Requires deep "inventory" of legislation governing the various sectors of the economy, public administration, including law enforcement". Improvement of anti-corruption legislation is enshrined in the Plan of the nation – 100 steps to implement five institutional reforms [4]. Today, an absolutely new law is in force, called the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Counteracting Corruption", many amendments to procedural legislation have been introduced, and the responsibility for corruption offense has been toughened. For the implementation of these legal innovations, the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated September 13, 2016 № 328 reorganized the Ministry of Civil Service Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan by its conversion to the Republic of Kazakhstan Agency for Civil Service Affairs and Anti-Corruption Affairs. The agency has a department - National Bureau of Anti-Corruption, as well as territorial authorities in the regions, cities of republican significance, the capital. In the minds of citizens, it is necessary to cultivate absolute intolerance to any kind of corruption manifestations. To do this, you need to constantly maintain a large-scale anti-corruption propaganda in the media, with the publication of illustrative examples from everyday life. In particular, citizens should see how their appeals are handled, and receive timely and qualitative answers. Institutional reforms of judicial and law enforcement systems are being carried out. Legislation has been introduced to provide for strengthening the protection of the rights of citizens in criminal proceedings, reducing its repressiveness.

All these measures helped to significantly improve the efficiency of anti-corruption activities, but the fight against corruption is still up to date.

Understanding the importance of this issue, and in accordance with the instruction of the Head of State, the "Nur Otan" party developed the Anti-Corruption Program for 2015–2025. It provides for the formation in society of the ideology of "zero tolerance" for corruption and eradicating it as a phenomenon. The new doctrine of the party expressly states that the fight against corruption is the task of everyone [5].

Humanity has accumulated considerable experience in combating corruption. However, in our opinion, the paramount place should be occupied by moral values, which are laid down from childhood. Therefore it is very important that this program pays special attention to the family and the sphere of education. Literally with the mother's milk, our future generation must receive the fundamentals of rejecting corruption as a common evil. For the younger generation, material goods, achievements and knowledge received by deserved labor should be significant.

For the formation of an anti-corruption culture in the program are invited to promote the ideological brand "Country without Corruption – a prosperous country".

Undoubtedly, the institutions of civil society, primarily public associations of citizens, should help counteract such social evil as corruption. With their help, such legislative norms can be created and implemented that will ensure transparency in the work of state bodies, national companies, identify shortcomings that generate corruption, and publicize every fact of corruption.

At the same time, civil society institutions should be fully accountable for their actions, for generalizing certain corruption manifestations to the whole sector of public administration.

As practice shows, in Kazakhstan and other countries, an amnesty of capital is a useful measure for combating the shadow economy and offshore schemes. In addition to improving the existing legislation in the program of the party "Nur Otan" proposed new legislation "On Combating Corruption", "On public control" and "Access to Information." In these laws, taking into account international experience, it is necessary to focus on eliminating the causes and conditions of corruption, rather than combating its consequences.

When using budgetary funds, it is first of all necessary to change the legislation on state purchases in order to attract not just the cheapest supplier, but, most importantly, capable of providing a better quality set of goods, works and services at a given time. It is also necessary to introduce responsibility for unreasonable planning of public expenditures, including from ministries, which are obliged to verify the validity of budgetary applications. Perhaps it will be useful to create a unified information base for prices for goods, work and services, and legislatively prohibit the state budget from setting the value of goods, works and services that are significantly different from the market.

A very important area of the fight against corruption is a public service. That is why the Head of State pays so much attention in his messages to the administrative reform and the formation of the state apparatus. Implementation of anti-corruption program will ensure the creation of an effective public administration and high-quality public services, including through increased transparency, accountability and transparency of public bodies controlled by the public.

Corruption crimes of civil servants should not only not remain without the attention of controlling bodies, but also lead to the unconditional resignation of immediate leaders of civil servants who committed corruption offenses.

The eradication of corruption is the main condition for strengthening the fundamental value of our people and the state – independence. Only in cooperation with all sectors of civil society, with all state bodies, representatives of business and science, will the state be able to solve this most difficult task and ensure the creation of a prosperous Kazakhstan.

Consolidation of the state, society and business on the basis of mutual trust, responsibility and partnership, the formation of an anti-corruption worldview and legal consciousness in society will allow us to eradicate such social evil as corruption in our country.

For the most effective method of combating corruption, it is necessary to eradicate it in the minds of people, and the very idea that one can benefit by illegal acts. As in the near future the destiny of the country will be determined by modern youth, first of all in high schools it is necessary to lay the foundations of culture of impatience to corruption.

We are sure that one of the main ways to prevent corruption is spiritual upbringing, and, of course, humanity.

 

Bibliography

1. Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan – "New opportunities for development in the conditions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution". 01.10.2018.

2. Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Leader of the Nation N. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan "Strategy" Kazakhstan-2050 ": a new political course of the held state". 12.14.2012.

3. Transparency International: the perception of corruption in Kazakhstan is twofold - http://abctv.kz

4. The plan of the nation – 100 concrete steps to implement the five institutional reforms of the Head of State Nursultan Nazarbayev. 05.20.2015.

5. Anti-Corruption Program for 2015-2025. 11.11.2014.

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