Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
русский, английский, чешский
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Информатика Искусствоведение История Культурология Медицина Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Техника Филология Философия Экология Экономика
E. V. Zvonova Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor
Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia
M. V. Sidorov, Head of Database Maintenance
United Card Services, Global Payments Inc.
Organizational changes are aimed at improving the efficiency of management and are associated with changes and the development of a business strategy. A modern commercial organization operates in difficult conditions that require mobility and efficiency of management. In the modern theory and practice of managing an organization, organizational changes are defined as a system of purposeful and systematic measures aimed at adapting to changing external conditions of the formal structure, business processes and resource allocation systems (Kotter, J. P.) [3; 4].
Not only the technologies, means of production and management structure should change, but also the organization’s employees ’vision of the development of the organization as a whole and the professional future of each employee [1; 2]. Characteristics of staff motivation are the main indicators of change management success.
Motivation is considered as a combination of internal and external driving forces that induce a person to act, and give this activity a direction oriented towards the achievement of certain goals. In organizations, the intra-company system of employee motivation is aimed at encouraging productivity, quality of work, recognition of creativity, performance and initiative – all those qualities that contribute to effective performance and lead to the achievement of the strategic goals of the enterprise.
The main idea of change management is that organizational changes are purposeful, conscious and in a special way organized set of actions of the production system for changes in the external and internal environment, accompanied by quantitative and qualitative growth of its elements that have a dynamically unstable state, the presence of which requires constant adaptation to changing conditions, leading to transformations that increase the efficiency and competitiveness of enterprises. Organizational changes are divided into stages.
Kurt Lewin proposed a three-stage theory of change, commonly known as Defrost, Motion, Freeze. We were based on a modern look at the phased process of change based on the John Kotter model of change. Creating willingness to change means weakening those forces that keep the organization in its present state. The transition involves the development of new assessments, attitudes and behavior. Consolidation is the creation of such mechanisms that support the activities of the organization, which guarantee its effectiveness .
The management process during the period of organizational change depends on a certain stage of organizational change:
- At the initial stages of the management it is necessary to focus on the ability of the employee to be active and strive for training;
- At the stage of completion of organizational changes, it is necessary to focus efforts to consolidate the results obtained .
To solve the set tasks and verify the initial assumptions, a set of research methods was used: analysis of the socio-psychological literature on the problems of organizational change, management of personnel motivation; studying the last state of the problem of managing staff motivation during the period of organizational change; Test of the repertory grids by J. Kelly; Relationship color test (test by AI Lutoshkin); developed methodology of interviews and questionnaires.
Experimental base of the research: 20 respondents from various organizations took part in the research. All employees worked in organizations conducting organizational changes.
Interviews and questioning showed at what stage of organizational change is the subject, what his attitude to his own career, how the subject sees himself in his organization and in a particular position, and more.
The color test of relationships allowed the respondents to identify the three key concepts that are directly related to work: introduction of changes, increasing the pace of work, routine work and to three significant people in a team - leader, colleague, subordinate, as well as actual needs in professional activities the subject at the time of the study.
The test of the repertory grids by J. Kelly revealed the main motive of the professional activity of the subjects, and the system of constructs allowed to look at the internal picture of the motives of the individual.
The set of techniques taken allowed us to make a meaningful picture of the motivation of each of the subjects.
At the “defrosting” stage, there is a clear positive attitude towards the upcoming changes – 9 of the 11 out of the test subjects. Only a few people think that they will experience stress when making changes in the organization, that in order to achieve the goal, it will be necessary to make considerable efforts and perseverance. We cannot attribute this characteristic to a positive or negative attitude to changes, however it is noteworthy that at the stage of “changes” the prevailing majority of the subjects associate changes with emotional tension, the need for perseverance and perseverance in achieving the goal, with stubbornness, energetic defense of their positions. Several people have a negative attitude towards making changes in the organization. None of the respondents at the “change” stage showed a positive attitude.
At the preparatory stage for organizational change (“defrosting”), an increase in the pace of work by most of the subjects is perceived as a condition for manifestation of authority, leadership, and initiative. Several people associate an increase in work with relaxation. At the “change” stage, there is no equally positive, negative or neutral direction. From this we can conclude that at the preparatory stage for changes, employees perceive a high rate of work as a potential opportunity to demonstrate their business and personal qualities. At the stage of changes directly, the attitude towards an increase in the pace of work is varied and may depend on the past experience of participating in changes, on the emotions experienced at the stage of changes at a given moment. The increase in the pace of work is associated with emotional stress, the reaction to which depends on the individual characteristics of the organism and personal characteristics.
At the “defrosting” stage, the subjects revealed a negative and neutral attitude towards the performance of routine work. However, at the stage of change itself, people appear whose routine work is connected with the comfort of bodily sensations, calmness, physical ease and sensual satisfaction. It is worth noting that during the interviews with respondents, all 20 subjects had a negative attitude towards routine work. From this we can conclude that at the stage of “changes” employees may show fatigue, and therefore the attitude to the routine work of some becomes positive.
No direct correlation was found between the attitude of the subjects towards managers and colleagues and the stage of organizational change. Attitudes toward subordinates were not considered by us, not all respondents were managers.
At the “defrosting” stage, two motives were identified that were not identified in any of the subjects at the “change” stage - this is “mastering new knowledge and skills” and “providing freedom of creativity”. The remaining motives were identified to varying degrees in the subjects of both stages of organizational change.
The study did not show a direct relationship between the actual needs of the subjects and their finding at a certain stage of organizational changes (“defrosting” or “changing”).
As a result of the study, we can formulate the following conclusions:
1. Organizational changes are a set of actions of the production system for changes in the external and internal environment, accompanied by quantitative and qualitative growth of its elements, having a dynamically unstable state, the presence of which requires constant adaptation to changing conditions leading to transformation, increasing the efficiency and competitiveness of enterprises.
2. Organizational changes are divided into stages defining significant points in the process. Psychological model of organizational change K. Levin captures the socio-psychological aspect of the implementation of organizational changes.
3. Employee motivation can act as an indicator of readiness or resistance to organizational change. At different stages of organizational change, management has its own characteristics that must be considered when drawing up a motivation program in an organization.
4. There is an interrelation of the main motives of the work, the actual needs of the employee and his attitude to changes in the organization with a certain stage of organizational changes.
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Zvonova E., Pestereva N. The psychological aspect of introduction of ERP systems in organizations // Ekonomické trendy. – № 2–3. – 2018. PP. 7–14.