Научно-методический и теоретический журнал
Идёт приём материалов
Искусствоведение История Культурология Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Филология Философия Экономика
Yu. A. Petrova, docent, Candidate of Philosophy,
I. V. Kozlova, student,
V. S. Zhuykova, student,
K. V. Miroshnichenko, student
Rostov-on-Don State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
In the process of carrying out economic activity, the basis of the organization's financial system and its most significant part, as well as a limited and at the same time most liquid resource, on the effectiveness of its use depends on the viability of the organization, are cash. With the help of a rational approach to managing cash, enterprises not only effectively organize the production process, but also multiply the probability of obtaining the maximum financial result.
To maintain stability and solvency, the organization must establish a competent mechanism for maintaining the accounting records of funds in accordance with the requirements of existing legislation.
Particular attention of the organization should be given to the correctness of the flow of funds in documents and registers of accounting, as well as their reflection on synthetic and analytical accounts.
An essential element of an effective financial management system is maintaining of adequate accounting records and source documents. Accounting documents and records are the physical objects upon which transactions are entered and summarized. Examples include such items as cancelled checks, paid bills, payrolls, ledgers, bank reconciliations, etc.
Documentation is an important link in the chain functioning of accounting. This is the beginning and basis of accounting. Without a properly executed document can’t be accounting records, from it depends completeness and accuracy of accounting information for users. Accounting document – is a written evidence of some form and content, which includes information about business operations and is proof of its implementation. Method of business transactions registration by documents called documentation. Documentation is an important element of accounting method because it is used for the primary observation of business transactions, and it is a prerequisite for their reflection in accounting [2, p. 53].
The procedure for conducting cash transactions is regulated by the Instruction of the Bank of Russia of March 11, 2014 No. 3210-U "On the procedure for conducting cash transactions by legal entities and a simplified procedure for conducting cash transactions by individual entrepreneurs and small business entities". It is this legislative act that provides rules for cash discipline, as well as the procedure for conducting cash transactions with cash. Cash discipline is a set of rules that must be observed when carrying out operations related to the receipt, issuance and storage of cash .
The error-free formation of the cash documentation is assigned to the chief accountant or another designated official (cashier) with whom a contract for the provision of accounting services has been concluded. It is the creation of the correct primary accounting documentation for the accounting of cash transactions by the responsible person that will allow avoiding negative situations connected with loss of funds or violation of the law. Receipt of cash is carried out with the help of a cash receipt. When receiving a cash order, the cashier needs to check the following parameters: [3, p. 236]
- the signature of the chief accountant;
- to determine the correspondence between the sum written in figures and the sum written in words;
- the availability of the documents listed in this order
After the cashier has accepted the money, he must verify the amount of money specified in the cash receipt, with the amount of actually received money. If these amounts coincide, then he signs the incoming cash order, places a corresponding stamp on the receipt and issues it to the agent of the funds.
The issuance of salaries, allowances, scholarships and other payments is made on the basis of an out-of-pocket cash order, payrolls, as well as payment and settlement statements. When compiling an out-of-pocket cash order, the cashier must take into account:
- the signature of the chief accountant;
- correspondence between the sum written in figures, with the sum written in words.
The cashier has the right to issue money only after checking the compliance of the recipient's data with the submitted documents, for example a passport or other document proving his identity. When issuing money, the cashier must recount the amount that must be given in the presence of the recipient, after which he gives out the cash order warrant for printing. Control over the movement of funds in the cashier is carried out using the Journal of registration of incoming and outgoing cash documents, which is filled in by an accountant and is conducted separately by revenue and expense transactions. This document is used at the discretion of the management.
Based on the data of each incoming and outgoing cash order, the cashier maintains a Cash Book in which the entries are made in duplicate. The first – remains in the cash book, the second – is a report of the cashier, which is transferred to the accounting department together with the incoming cash order and payment documents. At the end of the working day, the cashier must verify the data of the cash book with the data of cash documents and withdraw the balance of cash in the cash register. If there were no cash transactions during the day, the cash book will not be filled. The register of cash received and issued by the cashier is filled only if several cashiers work at the enterprise. Entries in the book are recorded during the working day at the time of transfer of cash between the senior cashier and cashiers and are confirmed by their signatures.
Impeccable fulfillment by the cashier of all rules of registration of cash documentation will allow creating effective functioning of cash flow in the cash desk. And the main aspect will be the avoidance of administrative violations, which can have a negative impact both on the work of the organization and on its reputation [4, p. 32].
1. Instruction of the Central Bank of Russia of 11.03.2014 N 3210-U (Edited on 03.02.2015) «On the procedure for conducting cash transactions by legal entities and a simplified procedure for conducting cash transactions by individual entrepreneurs and small business entities».
2. Maximova V. F., Sagareva D. A. Theory of accounting: Study Guide – Odessa:ОNEU, offset duplicator, 2013. – 182 p.
3. Pipko V. A., Abrosimova T. F., Batishcheva E. A., Kostyukova E. I., Sytnik O. E. Cash: accounting, analysis, audit: textbook. – Moscow : Finance and Statistics, 2013. – 236 p.
Semenikhin V. V. Cash settlements. The GrossMedia Publishing House: ROSBUKH, 2016. – 32 p.