Каталог статей из сборников научных конференций и научных журналов- The derivational possibility of the suffixes -ak/-gak in Dari language

Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
Paradigmata poznání. - 2018. - № 3

The derivational possibility of the suffixes -ak/-gak in Dari language

Kh. Alimova, Candidate of Philology sciences, associate professor,

ORCID 0000-0001-7449-1832,

e-mail: xolidaxon66@mail.ru,

Tashkent State Institute of Oriental Studies,

Tashkent, Uzbekistan


Actually, the suffixes -ak/-gak are one of the affixes which make diminutive – hypocoristic form of nouns in Dari language. However during the language development the degree of this suffixes has been raised as a word-formative. The origins and the derivational possibilities of the suffixes -ak/-gak have been highlighted by the author [1, p. 3–11]. The conclusions have been made according to analysis of the theme. In the following, the semantics of suffixal word-formation -ak/-gak are analyzed.

The meaning and the use of suffix -ak do not differ from the Persian and the tadjik languages in the current Dari language. The main difference among these languages depends on the use of phonetical types with suffix -ak. Likewise, mutual voice with other suffixes of -ak which expresses category of subjective evaluation can be differed (for example, in Persian language -če, -e are productive) [2, p. 112].

-akak is the reduplicated variant of suffix -ak and expresses personality for Dari and Tadjik conversation language does not occur in a current Persian language. The meanings of diminutive-hypocoristic form of nouns can be expressed strongly by this suffixes: xor(d)tarakak ‘tiny’, češmakakâ-ye godi ‘little eyes of puppet’ [4, p. 157–159].

The suffixes -ak/-gak are productive form-building which joins in nouns, adjectives, adverbs and expresses the following meanings: a) diminutive, b) emotional-hypocoristic with positive connotation c) emotional-pejorative with negative connotation; a direction of connotation sometimes depends on context. For instance, بچه bača بچگک →   bačagak as an example: مرد بارانی پوش از بچگکی که بساط خود را بر روی سنگ قبری هموار کرده بود، یک بوتل آب و یک شاخه گل سرخ خرید [21, p. 85] ‘A man with an umbrella bought a bottle of water and a twig of rose from a boy who spreaded his possessions over a grave stone’.بچگک هایم را در خانه مانده ام [33, p. 26] ‘I have left my kids at home (emotional-pejorative meaning)’.او بچۀ غلام! به ای بچگک او بتی [8, p. 14] ‘Oh, slave! Give water to this child (emotional-pejorative meaning)’.

The category of subjective evaluation which was expressed by suffixes
-ak/-gak is usually characteristic for conversation speech. These forms, which occur in the literary language, it is also desirable to consider as specific for conversation speech. For example:

مرد mard ‘man’ – مردک mardak (for describing pejoration and weakness):یک مردک بسیار نادار بود که از دار دنیا فقط یک گاو نر اله داشت  [26, p. 470] ‘There is a pauper man only with a skewbald stud-bull in this world’.

حسن  Hasan ‘Hasan’– حسنک Hasanak ‘little Hasan’ (diminution):حسنک که هوش گمک شده بود گفت: من نمی فهمم که چگونه این مهره مرا به تمام آرزوهایم می رساند؟ [35, p. 46] ‘Little Hasan said dreaminessly: “I do not understand, how will this bead come true all of my dreams?”

We can come across that re-diminution form of nouns through diminutive loanwords:  پاپی گک pâpigak ‘puppy’ (from English – puppy):این پاپی گک هم یک دفعه شروع کرد به عو عو کردن [33, p. 25] ‘This puppy started to bark suddenly, too’. صدای پاپی گک را می شنود که نمی فهمد از بالای دیوار به سوی کی جف می زند [32, p. 14] ‘He hears the voice of puppy but does not understand to whom it barks over the wall’.

The suffixeses -ak/-gak are used to make new words. As a stem of form-building (naj(j)âr ‘carpenter’ ® naj(j)ârak ‘woodpecker’, môy 1) ‘hair’; ‘bristle’, 2) ‘wool’ ® môyak ‘brush (little)’), adjective (torš ‘sour’ ® toršak 1) ‘sorrel’; 2) ‘sour fruit (for example, a raw apple)’, tašna ‘thirsty’ ® tašnak ‘a name of ailment on children’), stem of verb (tarâš – stem of present tense of verb tarâšidan ‘plane’, ‘trim’ (afterwards – SPT) ® tarâšak ‘scraping tool’ (an appliance which scrapes surfaces of metallic objects), imitation (description) word (γêč ‘creak’ ® γêčak ‘ghijjak (musical instrument)’, ferfer ‘flutter’ ® ferferak ‘humming-top’), complex stem (šir ‘milk’ + čôš – SPT of verb čôšidan ‘suck’ ® širčôšak ‘soother’ (for giving to drink milk), âftâb ‘the sun’ + bârân ‘rain’ ® âftâbbârânak ‘summer rain’, ‘daylight rain’) can be used. Derived words are nouns of objects and action-positions and they, also, make new words which describes people.

The analysis of the following materials assist to explain semantics of
-ak/-gak suffixal derivations, to determine current process going on Dari language. So, the analysis of examples which stated above require to re-organize translation and explanatory dictionaries in Dari language.

Names of objects which are made by suffixes -ak/-gak mean the followings: “object understood from stem”, “action understood from stem” and “thing for motion understood from stem”. For example:

ابریشمک abrêšomak ‘maize fringe’; ‘maize ear’ (ابریشم abrêšom ‘silk’; ‘cocoon’; ‘silk fibre’):در اثر قلت آب در مراحل ابتدایی نمو، نباتاتی سوخته و قد کوتاه به وجود آمده و هم تولید ابریشمک ها به تعویق خواهد افتاد [19, p. 30–31] ‘Because of the lack of water plants will burn and shrink in initial period of growing and reproducing maize fringe will stop’.

آتشک âtešak 1. ‘lightning’, 2. ‘cockchafer (a type of insect shines at night) beetle’, ‘cockchafer’ (آتش âteš and âtaš ‘fire’) (the word is given in dictionaries as a name of an ailment: آتشک âtešak 1) agriculture ‘anthracnose’ 2) ‘syphilis’ [3, p. 25]): یک چیزی نزدیک پدرم خورد و آتشک زد [31, p. 81] ‘Something srtiked near my father and lightning occurred’.دو دزد در حال بالا شدن از دیوار خانه بودند که ناگهان آسمان آتشک زد و روشن شد [9, p. 34] ‘As two robbers were jumping the wall, suddenly there was lightning and it lightened the sky’.آتشک کرمکی خورد است که شب، مانند چراغ، می تابد و شب چراغ، شب چراغک، شب تاب و چراغله هم نامیده می شود   [16, p. 114] ‘A cockchafer is a kind of beetle which shines at night just like a lamp and people name it nightlight’.

 الماسک‘lightning’ (الماس ‘diamond’):اگه الماسک سر قلا نازل شوه زنده جان باقی نمی ماند؛ خدا رحم کنه  [25, p. 24] ‘If lightning falls on the castle there will not be any alive person; May Allah save’.با ای الماسک ها ثمارق می رویه و رواش سر می زنه [7, p. 155] ‘Mushrooms and rhubarb grow as a result of these lightnings’. الماسک ها در سینۀ ابرهای سیاه چیزی به آتش سپید می نوشتند  [24, p. 108] ‘Lightnings used to write something on white fire in the slope of black clouds’.

Form-building stem may be complex:

آفتاب گردک âftâbgardak 1) ‘a type of lizard’, 2) ‘sunflower’آفتاب)  âftâb ‘sun’,گرد  gard – SPT of verb گردیدن gardidan ‘round’):آفتاب گردان و آفتاب گردک نوعی از چلپاسه و گل آفتاب پرست می باشد  [16, p. 41] ‘Oftobgardon and oftobgardak are types of the lizard and a name of sunflower’.

آب خورک âbxorak ‘dish’ (dish put in the cage of birds for watering) (آب âb, خور xor – SPT of verb خوردن xordan ‘drink’):آب خورک هایشرا پر از آب و دانه کردم، قفس را بردم پهلوی کاکایم ماندم  [10, p. 39] ‘I filled in waterplates with water and corn, I took the cage and put in front of my uncle’.

But compare the word of  آب خوره âbxora ‘waterplate’:در پهلوی دروازۀ اتاق درس، چاتی گلین پر آب با آفتابۀ گلین گذاشته بودند. این آب خورۀ شاگردان مکتب مرکز حکومت اعلای فراه بود  [38, p. 190] ‘In front of the door of class a smaller jug and jugfull which is full of water was put. This was the waterplate of the school pupils of Farah government center’.

آفتاب گرمک âftâbgarmak ‘very hot’آفتاب)  âftâb ‘sun’,گرم  garm ‘hot’):.دو و یا سه، چهار بود که چهار - پنج نفری اورا در آفتاب گرمک روز از خانه خارج ساخته بودند تا هوایش دیگر شود و باز همان ها اورا به خانه برده بودند  [18, p. 42] ‘It was about 3 or 4 o’clock, four-five people got it in order to change the air in the hot of the day after they themselves had brought it to home again’.  

By -ak/-gak suffixes children’s things and names of game (čarxak ‘peg-top’, (čarx ‘wheel’, ‘turning round’), aspak ‘colt’ (toy) (asp ‘horse’), γerγerak ‘top’ (γerγer (imitation word)), punpunak* ‘little surnay’ (punpun (imitation), pâydawânak ‘go-cart’ (for childrenwhich is aimed at teach them to walk) (pây ‘leg’, dawân in the structure of composite word: ‘pressing to space), poštak ‘stumb-stumb game (the game that is jumping from above together)’ (pošt ‘back’) is observed to made.

اسپک aspak ‘wood horse’ (اسپ asp ‘horse’):اسپک ها شروع به حرکت کردند و عایشه با دل لرزان از خوشی دودستی به سیخ پشت اسپک چسپیده بود و پاهایش را در رکاب سیاه رنگ محکم کرده بود  [6, p. 98] ‘Wood horse began to move. The Oisha’s heart flowed from gladness, after  she had cought the little stick behind horse with two hands and had strengthened to black stepladder his legs’.لیلما که به کنار اسپک سفید رسید، نور هریکین از کلکینچه به میدانی می ریخت  [31, p. 21] ‘The light of a lantern was shining from the window when Limo came next to white wood horse’.

فرفرک ferferak ‘top’, ‘cycle’ (فرفر ferfer ‘pir-pir’ (imitation word)):حاجی سلام چهار چوبۀ دروازۀ قلعه را پر کرد و رو به طرف مردم کرد و چند ثانیه سرش عین فرفرک روی گردنش چرخید  [23, p. 76] ‘Hoji Salom set the stone of the fortress door and turned towards people, his head turned round above the neck as the top one minute’.فولکس واگن بقه مانند آغا مثل فرفرک سرعت می گیرد و آغا در جمع جوان ها خود را جوان تر حس می کند  [29, p. 473] ‘Elder brother’s Wolkswagen that is like bull increases the speed as the top (Wolkswagen car) and elder brother feels younger himself among the youngs’.

تخم شکنک toxmšekanak ‘fighting egg (a name of game)’ (تخم tóxm ‘egg’, شکن šekan – SPT of verb شکستن šekastan ‘break’):  در مسابقۀ تخم بازی یا تخم شکنک یک دانۀ آن هرگز نمی شکست  [11, p. 456] ‘In the competition of fighting egg one egg didn’t break at all’.

The possibility of word building of -ak is very high and wide. In the analysis of our material not only verbal but also in literary language such word building, which is not possible to translate into English language it with one word, was found. For example: باد ریزک  bâdrêzak ‘(any) the fruit which tree was poured in the wind’ (باد ریختن  bâd rêxtan ‘to be poured in the wind) [5, p. 145]); آوک  âwak ‘delicious apricot fruit with water’ (آب âb –آو  âw (colloquial) ‘water’) [5, p. 134].

آومانک âwmânak ‘the place which waterplate is put (standing)’ (آب/آو âw ‘water’, مان  mân – SPT of verb ماندن mândan ‘put’): بچم همو دیکچه ره ده آومانک بان [5, p. 134] ‘My son put the small box to the place which waterplate is put’.  

الغوچک alγučak ‘the stones that are put when people go across the river’ (الغوج کردن  alγuč kardan ‘jump’, ‘take big steps’): نزدیک ده رسیده بود، در چند قدمی الغوچک که به طرف ده می گذشت، فقط نگاهی خیلی مختصر به دریا انداخت  [13, p. 66] ‘He came near the village, the stones which send towards the village in each step, he only looked out the river one time (one time he looked out)’.

  بندکbandak ‘the silver coin for decoration (it is sewed for the decoration of dress through hook)’; here is  rupiya (currency) (بند band  −SPT of verb بستن bastan ‘to bind’):هه، گوشواره بزن، انگشتری بزن، روپیه بندک بزن  [26, p. 190] ‘Ee, wear the earring, wear the ring, wear the silver coin’.

The words that informs the symbol which is realeted to person (adjective, but because of using for the symbol of the person, it comes as a noun) are observed to be made too. For example, بینک binak ‘fortune - teller’, ‘the person who knows the future’:از بینک چشم امید مدار  [20, p. 15] ‘Don’t hope from the predictor’.

-ak/-gak suffixes helps to define the meaning (pleonasm is observed): it is made on the define base of word making base. For example, برق 1) ‘lightning 2) ‘shining’, ‘sparkling’ 3) ‘electricity, but برقک barqak ‘thunderstorm’, ‘lightning’.آسمان برقک زد.  [31, p. 81] ‘The lightning shined in the sky.ناگهان  ابرهای سیاه در آسمان به هم خوردند و برقک شد  [15, p. 211] ‘Suddenly black clouds appeared in the sky and the thunderstorm thundered’.

It is on the function of the noun part of verb in dictionary.  برق زدن barq zadan а) ‘to shine’ (about the lightning) b) ‘to flash’, ‘light’ (about eyes), but برقک زدن barqak zadan ‘to shine’ (about the lightning) [3, p. 111] was noted. In our material  برقک زدن barqak zadan ‘to flash’, ‘light’ (about eyes) was registered:ناگهان از زمین کنده شد و با فریادی دردآلود میان خاک ها افتاد و دیدگانش برقک زد  [28, p. 25] ‘Suddenly he was picked from the ground, fell to the soil with the wail that is full of illness, lit from his eyes’.

اشپلاقک ešpelâqak ‘little whistle’ (اشپلاق ešpelâq 1) ‘whistle’; 2) ‘the sound of whistle’. In this place the suffixes  -ak is used for emphasizing both diminution and noun of object (not whistle voice); also, سیخک sixak 1) ‘little spit’, 2) (tech.) ‘stem’, 3) ‘hairclip’ [3, p. 467] (سیخ six ‘spit’):کلثوم را این بار اشپلاقک ها، گوشواره ها  و سیخک ها و گیراهای موی افسون کرده بود [14, p. 6] ‘That time little whistles, earrings (earnings) ва hairclips had enchanted Gulsum’.

In the dictionary the meanings of  بجل bojol 1) ‘the bone of ankle’ (anatomic member), 2) ‘bone’ (in game) ва بجلک bojolak 1) ‘ankle’; 2) look: بجل; 3) tech. ‘tappet’ [3, p. 99] were noted. On the analyses of our materialsبجلک  / بجولک bojolak was observed to define on the meaning of ‘ankle’ (on the variant of بجل  bojol the meaning of ‘bone’ was met (in game)):یک کمی جلوتر رفت، پایش در چقری فرو رفت و تا بجلک تر شد  [37, p. 38] ‘One step he walked to foreground, his leg sank to a depth and it was wet till its ankle’.بند دستی اگرچه قاق ولی سفید و ظریف با همان رگ برآمده و همان خال نسواری رنگ گوشتی بالای بجولک  [18, p. 91] ‘Although she has thin arm (ankle of arm) she has white, delicate, puffed-up vein and her thick (meaty) brown birthmark on her arm’.

The suffixes -ak links attributive in postpositional attributive and concretes a name of object: it has charachteristic as a derived word. For example:آهوی سفیدک âhu-ye safêdak ‘white deer’ (a kind of deer (term)) (آهو âhu ‘deer’, سفید safêd ‘white’; but آهوی سفید âhu-ye safêd ‘white deer’ (word-combination)):آهوی  سفیدک به دشت آچی و آبدان که مابین امام صاحب و قندوز است، بسیارتر می باشد  [17, p. 21] ‘The white deer is found ample in the Ochi and Obdon desert between Imom Sohib and Qunduz’.از حیوانات وحشی جنگلی آهوی سفیدک در دشت ها و کوه ها، بز کوهی، نخچیر، گوسفند کوهی در کوهستان ها به وفرت پیدایش دارد و شکار کرده می شود  [11, p. 459] ‘The white deer which is wild animal was found and hunted in deserts and mountains and the mountain goat, argali is (a wild mountain sheep) in mountainous places’.

The base of word making may be borrowing: پنگک /پینگک pêngak ‘pin’ (from English); in that case the addition of suffixes -gak to the word which is completed with a consonant requires consideration of the spelling rules:پیچه های سیاهش از دو طرف شقیقه هایش آویزان بود. چهار پنگک گل دار هم به هر طرف زده بود  [34, p. 81] ‘Black braids fell on both sides of the face. The four flower pins also were all over her’.اگر حتی لحظه ای دلت به پینگک یا چوری رفت، کارت خلاص است [26, p. 223] ‘Even your heart desires for a pin or bracelet for a moment, your work has been finished’.

Suffixes -ak/-gak that describes a human or animal’s body, or a combination of the words that characterize them and they will make a noun which cites the meaning of action and position: these usually come with the part of the complex verb; the derivatives can be used in different meanings: abrugak zadan ‘to knit one’s brow’, angoštak kardan ‘to set somebody against others’ (angoštak ‘to touch fingers somebody’s body impolitely’), dastpâlak kardan ‘to palpate’, ‘to feel something with your hand, dandânak zadan ‘to chatter your teeth from cold, dandânqerečak kardan ‘to gnash your teeth’, dastobâlak zadan ‘to creep, to crawl (about a child)’, bâlak zadan ‘to take wing’, dombak zadan а) ‘to wag tail’ (about a dog), b) ‘to play the hypocrite’, nafasak zadan ‘to choke’, qetqetak dâdan ‘to tickle’. For example: پایک زدن pâyak zadan ‘to stamp’ )(پا(ی pâ ‘foot’,  زدن zadan ‘to beat’) [3, p. 181]:ملا اف بلندی کشید، بخار دهانش پر زور بیرون شد. خانه که برگشت زنش پشت دروازه پایک می زد  [34, p. 113–114] ‘Mullo hardly frustrated, and the air came out strong from his mouth. When he returned home, his wife was stamping behind the door’.گلویم را بغض می فشرد و بالأخره روی خاک ها، روی زمین می نشستم و پایک زنان می گریستم  [18, p. 138] ‘My throat was squeezing, and finally I sat on the ground and weeped stamply’. Auxiliary verb makes a meaning: پایک گرفتن   pâyak gereftan ‘to lull with your foot’ (پا(ی pâ(y) ‘foot’,گرفتن  gereftan ‘to take’):اوف... لیلاجان، تو برو قاسمه پایک بگیر  [36, p. 20] ‘Oof … Laylajan, Go to Qasseme for lulling’.

بالک زدن bâlak ‘to take wing’; ‘to prepare for’ (بال bâl ‘wing’, زدن zadan ‘to beat’):دیگر احدی جرأت نداشت که در مقابل او بالک بزند یا پله بگیرد  [30, p. 230] ‘So nobody could be decisive to prepare for jumping or taking wing in front of it’. مرغ دل من می پرد از دام تو امروز – پرواز بود مقصد بالک زدن من [27, p. 125] ‘Today a bird of my heart will take wing from your trap – a goal of taking wing was flight’.

In this materials pointing to the repetation of action on derived words by repetation of derivative stem, connotative meaning can be met:

بال بالک زدن bâlbâlak zadan ‘to move from one side to another side’; ‘start’; ‘paddle’: ولی حاجی خیرالدین برای همیشه در قریه باقی ماند و بیرق سبزی بر سر گورش بال بالک می زند  [22, p. 47] ‘The saint Hoji Xayriddin stayed in this village forever and a green flag is flattering over his gravestone’.

Derived words are not formed from words, at all but they are formed on the basis of certain meaning. In dictionaries, word پوست pôst means:1) skin; shell; fur 2) shell, peeling; husk, crust [3, p. 173]. -ak is a type of form building that creates homonym words in the following words: پوستک  pôstak I ‘sheep-skin’ (a type of carpet which is made from wool of animals); پوستک  pôstak II ‘bran’, ‘straw’:پدر، پشت تنور، بر روی پوستک نشست. همگی به دورش جمع شدیم و دم به دم به درون خورجینش سرک کشیدیم  [37, p. 96] ‘Our father sat on the sheep-skin near the tandir (something in it bread is cooked). All of us surrounded him and often peeped in his saddle bag’.

جل و پوستک jol-o-pôstak ‘belongings’, ‘possessions’; word by word: جل jol ‘material under a saddle of hore or other domestic animals’ andپوستک  pôstak ‘sheep-skin’):روز دیگر یک کراچی دستی با یک نفر کراچی کش جل و پوستک بختاور و مولا داد را که دیگر از خدمت در خانۀ عالیه بیگم معاف شده اند، به جای نامعلومی انتقال می دهد [29, p. 291] ‘Next morning coachmen took his private belongings to uncertain place by his handcar which became free from the house of Oliyabegim and given from the god’.سه روز پیش دیده بود که با پدرش سر سخن است و تهدید می کند که اگر   کرایه را تا یک هفته نیاورد جل و پوستکشان را به کوچه خواهد انداخت [28, p. 11] ‘Three days ago he saw him arguing with his father and be threatened that their possessions would be thrown away if he would not pay rent payment in a week’. مواد خارجی که در گندم یافت می شود بیش تر عبارت از حبوبات دیگر، تخم های انواع مختلفه و اندازه های متنوعۀ سنگ، کلوخ، پوستک، کاه، خاک و گرد می باشد  [16, p. 196] ‘External substances in wheat mostly consist of other grain crops, different kinds of seeds, stone, lump, bran, straw, soil and dust’.

Researching of -ak/-gak suffixesal derived words in Dari language, although this theme was learned by the author in the sphere of the article before, the author stated that there are lots of questionable issues demand minding and settling problems about semantic of derived words, stylistic meanings and functions. Also, the examples stated above demand re-building Dari translation dictionaries.

The Materials about this article lead to the following conclusions:

1. The suffixes -ak/-gak is productive form buildings; joins to noun, adjective, adverb and mean as the following grammatical meanings diminution, emotional-hypocoristic with positive connotation and emotional-pejorative with negative connotation.

2.  The category of subjective evaluation which were expressed by suffixes -ak/-gak is characteristic for verbal speech, in general. It would be reasonable that considering these forms which are often in literary language as specific for verbal speech.

3. The suffixes -ak/-gak make nouns of object and action as a word word-formative, also, make signs related to human (adjective, but it comes as a noun because of using it for signs of humanity). As a stem of word-formative ay come noun, adjective, stem of verb, imitation word and compound stem; the stem of some derived words are not used independently.

4. Object names which made with suffixes -ak/-gak express the following meanings: “object on the basis of similarity from stem”, “object which is charachterized action understood from stem”, “object which is used for action understood from stem”. Derived words are mostly charachterized with their terminological lexics. Also, concrete object names of them express diminution meaning of suffixeses -ak/-gak according to lexical semantic.

5. The suffixes -ak/-gak join body parts of human and animals and express meaning of position-motion which are done by them: these are usually come as a part of noun part of compound verb; derived words may be used as a word with different meaning.

6. Appearing of homonym derived words are typicaled with meaning, word changing and word formative attributes of suffixes -ak/-gak; sometimes it hinges on having lots of meaning of word as word-formative stem.


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