A. B. Kokkozova doctoral student PhD,
Karaganda University of Kazpotrebsoyuz,
L. A. Tretyakova Doctor of Economics, Professor,
Belgorod State University,
Public administration is objectively a necessary element of the life of society. The state creates a development strategy, is responsible for setting goals and objectives, and also guarantees the maintenance of the basic values of society and provides the necessary conditions for the development of every citizen of the country.
Naturally, the system of public administration that exists today has undergone many changes in the process of evolution. Significant factors in the existence of a particular management model are the initial data, such as the geopolitical position of the country, certain historically formed customs and traditions in the field of politics and law, the political situation in the country. After the collapse of the USSR, a new era began in the republic, combining the existing experience and modern models of public administration in order to apply the most suitable one.
At the turn of 2000, serious changes took place in the political life of the country; a course was taken to create a completely new political platform, where the leading role was assigned to the principles of a market economy, political pluralism and parliamentarism. Thus, Kazakhstan, abandoning command-and-control methods of management, decided to build a secular legal democratic state [1, p. 33].
At the same time, the task of political transformation is also urgent for the country. The state and citizens are faced with the task of building a modern effective state. This cannot be achieved without a deep analysis of the world experience in the development of public administration models and the search for the most effective way for the country.
The issues of public administration worried mankind practically from the moment of its existence. In ancient times, they were already convinced that the progress of mankind outside the state was impossible. However, the first works that described the instruments of government were written during the Renaissance. The treatise "Sovereign" (1513) by Nicollo Miciavelli was the first fundamental source, which systematized information about the state and how it was governed.
Further, the questions of the topic under study were reflected in the works of scientists of the New Age, adherents of humanism: B. Spinoza, T. Hobbes, J. Locke, Sh.L. Montesquieu, J.-J. Russo. In their works, first of all, the issues of natural human rights were considered. Naturally, such issues as the possibility of freedom of choice, protection of private life, a fair trial, the right to property, security of the state, and its stability were studied. Thus, the humanists substantiated the need for the separation of powers, and also laid the foundations of constitutionalism.
Next, we would like to highlight a number of works that are fundamental in the study of issues of public administration and the formation of management science (table 1).
Table 1. Public Administration Studies
Essays on the administration
Division into ministries, schools and civil servants law.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Democracy in America
Comparative analysis of liberalism and conservatism, federalism and democratic regime. Questions of decentralization of power.
Lorenz von Stein
Scientists have been given a definition of management as the implementation of the state will. The focus of the state's attention is aimed at ensuring the natural needs of citizens (security, the presence of a military army, utilities, education), as well as the development of economic life.
Public Administration Science
For the first time, the principles of meritocracy were proposed as a tool for implementing public administration: competence, professionalism, impartiality. The author also condemned corruption, clannishness, plundering of the country's wealth, as "a path to nowhere."
At the same time, the German political scientist, economist and sociologist M. Weber was a pioneer in the birth and development of the science of public administration, and in particular in the study of models of state administration. In his work "Economy and Society" (1921) Weber gave a deep analysis and characteristics of the phenomenon of public administration. They developed the principles of public administration, based on the German bureaucratic model of the time. However, it should be recognized that they are universal and relevant at the present stage [2, p. 151–164]:
- Appointment of civil servants in accordance with the received education (not elective);
- Hierarchy of administrative institutions;
- Limited area of competence of the institution;
- Civil service as the main activity of an employee with payment of wages in accordance with the position held;
- Discipline and rules for civil servants, etc.
M. Weber formulated and identified three ideal types of political power: traditional, charismatic and rational-legal type.
According to M. Weber, the ideal model is bureaucratic state administration. Weber also believed that a rational bureaucracy is the best mechanism for implementing public administration. Bureaucracy ensures consistent and stable administration, accountability and expertise. However, he also admitted the idea that at a certain moment in time the bureaucracy reveals the "instinct of power", and does not solve only the functional needs in management [9, p. 333–334].
Contribution to the development of the theory of public administration such scientists as W. Wilson, F. Goodnow and M. Weber gave the development of the first stage of public administration as an independent science (from 1880 to 1920). These scientists are often referred to as the “predecessor generation”. Key ideas laid down by them: 1) the state administration apparatus must be studied; 2) there must be a clear separation between the apparatus of state administration and politics.
From 1920 to 1950 - the time frame of the second stage in the development of the theory of public administration. The greatest contribution to development at that time was made by American scientists. This is due to the fact that at that time, American universities have academic freedom in making learning paths. At that time, many new, experimental, theoretical and practical disciplines were created, among them the theory of public administration.
In the second stage, the "classical school" and "school of human relations" stood out most vividly in the theory of public administration.
Since the 1950s of the 20th century, the third stage in the development of the theory of public administration began and is called "Public administration".
Behavioral approach (1950–1960), representatives – G. Simon, W. Thompson, D. Easton.
The goal of the representatives of the behavioral approach was the desire to prove that effective administrative and public administration is realized through the awareness of their capabilities by civil servants and the analysis of the behavior of groups. The adherents of the behavioral approach were inclined to believe that it is possible to increase the efficiency of public administration by increasing the efficiency of the human resources involved in them. However, at the present stage, the concepts of behavioral sciences are applicable only in the field of personnel / civil servants management, in view of the same shortcomings as in the “school of human relations” [4, p. 89].
Systems approach (1960–1970), representatives – D. Easton, G. Almond, T. Parsons.
A systematic approach to public administration provides for the presence of dependencies and links between the elements of the administration system, as well as between the public administration system itself and the external environment, society. This allows us to formulate the assumption that the administration system is not static [6, p. 81].
A logical continuation of the systems approach was the situational approach, which began its development in the 1970s. Representatives – J. Woodworth, P. Lawrence, J. Lorsch, D. Hickson and others. The essence of this approach is that there is no optimal structure. It is always necessary to carry out an analysis of a specific situation, isolating those factors that have a decisive influence in this particular situation. Since it is impossible to predict and think over every situation, it is necessary to develop "situational thinking". Thus, managers will be able to change management tactics depending on the specific situation [8, p. 156].
It should also be noted that during the formation and development of the theory of administrative and public administration, the socialist model of public administration was also created and existed for about 70 years. And today many countries are developing this way: China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Cuba, Bolivia, the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and others.
The goal is to build an equal and just society. The goal is being realized by the leading Communist Party. A significant contribution to the development of this model was made by V. I. Lenin together with his followers - the Marxists. Was created not just a model of state administration, but the ideology of the state of the proletarian type.
At the present stage of development, several models of public administration can be distinguished, which are most widespread.
This period (late XX – early XXI century) became the starting point in the development of the theory of public administration: there was a transformation of public administration models (starting from the 80s of the last century): “New Public Management”; Good Governance model; "Network model of Government".
It seems interesting to us to produce models of "New Public Management"
"New Public Management". New Public Management (NPM) applies private business technologies in management to meet the goals of the public sector. The state acts as an agent whose purpose is to fulfill an order from the side of society.
Consider the basic principles of NPM, which are disclosed in the works of D. Osborne, T. Gabler and other scientists [7, p. 283–302]:
- the principle of fair competition between government and business in fulfilling orders from the public sector;
- expanding the scope of non-governmental organizations in terms of transferring control and monitoring of the activities of individual state institutions;
- provision of eligibility and quality of services for the population, focus on the end user;
- a change in the position of the state from the establishment of strict rules to the achievement of national goals by the population;
- development of private business based on competition and honesty;
- decentralization of the public sector of the economy and others.
New public management is not a rigid concept, but rather stands out from a number of separately taken elements from the business environment for the possibility of bringing public administration closer to the methods of business management in achieving the goals of the public sector [2, p. 154–161].
NPM concept statements:
- implementation of performance-based budgeting (calculation of performance is determined by indicators of efficiency and productivity);
- decentralization of the state apparatus by introducing quasi-market forms of organization (benchmarking, competition, fundraising, crowdsorfing);
- creation of conditions for competition of commercial organizations, non-commercial organizations, as well as in the structures of state institutions;
- conducting antimonopoly policy to enable the population to choose various service providers;
- implementation of strategic management;
- implementation of the target-programmed method;
- increasing the efficiency of performance indicators and productivity of each mechanism for the implementation of public administration, from the implementation of government programs and projects, to the introduction of modern technologies for personnel management, etc. [3, p. 53]
As a result of comparison, we can determine that at the present stage of development of the theory of public administration, there is a transformation from administration to the presence of economic elements in public administration, cooperation and interaction of subjects to achieve maximum results in the public sector.
At the same time, the existing shortcomings of this management model should be noted.
On the surface, management is skewed towards achieving economic performance. It turns out that in the implementation of this concept, the economic efficiency of the implemented direction is the main and key measure of the success of public administration, overlooking the aspects of social justice and the tendency for the distribution of public goods [5, p. 27–42].
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that the practice of implementing "New Public Management" has shown a contradiction in relation to its theoretical concepts. If the essence of the NPM theory was to borrow effective mechanisms of business management in the implementation of state power, then in practice it turned out the opposite – undermining the mechanisms of free competition, corporatization and monopolization of state power.
The above models and different approaches to understanding public administration are necessary when analyzing the policies pursued by this or that state. Naturally, each model has its own strengths and weaknesses, and it is impossible to derive a single effective model of public administration. It depends on many factors, starting with the culture and inherent traditions of each nation, ending with the economic, geopolitical state of this or that state.
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