E. V. Zvonova,
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
T. V. Artyushkina student,
Moscow Pedagogical State University,
Advertising is a powerful tool for influencing consumers and helping businesses to increase sales of goods and services [4; 2]. Currently, in the business environment, various communication models are used in advertising, which differ in purpose, degree of emotional and psychological impact, and type of use. These models explain the buying process and are used to achieve goals in the strategic planning of advertising campaigns. The seller needs to understand what impact advertising can have.
It is important to note that with the advent of Internet technologies, the communication process in advertising has changed.
After the lockdown in the spring of 2020, the forced transition of users to online mode led to an obvious increase in interest in online shopping. Yandex search queries in this segment from January to November 2020 showed an increase of 93 % compared to the same period last year .
At the same time, even after the restrictions were lifted from June to November 2020, interest in online shopping continued to grow and grew by more than one and a half times compared to the second half of 2019. If we consider separately the number of requests from June to November 2020, then the increase in the delivery category was 65 %, in the online purchase category – 21 %, online order – 37 % .
Data Insight studied the factors of market growth and made a forecast for the development of e-commerce for the next 5 years. According to the company, at least 10 million new customers have appeared in e-commerce in the three months of quarantine, and most of them will continue to shop online. There is another growth factor: 5–7 million people remain in remote places and move to remote suburbs or small cities, where the offline assortment is limited. In general, according to Data Insight estimates, the growth trend will continue until 2024 .
The consumer habits of users are changing and a new pattern of behavior is emerging on the Internet. With the growing demand for online shopping, companies are forced to rethink their sales processes and models. According to the results of the AKAR study, the share of online channels in the Russian advertising market in 2020 will grow against the background of a reduction in offline channels .
According to Yandex, after the start of quarantine, video consumption will continue to grow, and as a result, advertisers will invest more in video ads .
Representatives of modern brands “learn” to communicate in video format simultaneously in two ways: to solve traditional problems, to reach an audience and form a company's image, and also to use video creatives as a productivity tool.
Interest in video formats is especially noticeable among non-TV audiences. For such users, the Internet is a familiar environment. They use the Internet to satisfy their media content needs. In the fall of 2020, the conversion to online purchases is higher in the LTV (Light TV Viewer) segment: “Light viewers” are 10 % more active in making purchases on the Internet. By targeting this segment of users – either in the media mix or as an independent traffic source – you will reach the most active and engaged consumer audiences on the Internet.
To use the apps, the seller pays for conversions. The primary goal of a pay-per-conversion strategy is to attract visitors who are most likely to meet the advertiser's goal. According to Yandex, this helps to get up to 20 % additional conversions compared to manual control, when it is impossible to take into account the value of each track and you have to draw conclusions based on average data .
For image campaigns, optimize the display of video ads. When setting up video campaigns, depending on what the advertiser is doing, you can choose how you want to interact with the video: get more video views or website clicks after watching.
With the changing trends in the market and the growth of digital channels, users are becoming more demanding for the speed, quality and relevance of the content provided to them . With the help of the Yandex ecosystem and tools based on user data, the company can more flexibly transform and adapt to new conditions.
Internet advertising – notifying consumers through various means presented on the Internet about the company's activities to achieve the ultimate goal - the sale of goods and services.
Since the purpose of online advertising is to create a favorable image of the company, ensure the availability of information, attract new and potential customers, etc., this definition of online advertising is the most accurate.
The main difference between online advertising is the choice. The consumer may refuse to read a promotional email, not respond to a banner, etc. Internet advertising is not aggressive in its effect; it helps the consumer to satisfy his needs.
Online advertising uses a variety of communication media. You can:
1. Provide the consumer with comprehensive information about the advertised product or service.
2. Help the consumer to highlight the specificity of the advertised product that best suits the needs of the consumer in comparison with the competitor's products.
3. Get moral and aesthetic satisfaction in the process of interacting with the advertising text.
4. Use the information received from the consumer.
Information services of retail chains in Russia are divided into three groups:
· Computerized communication between network participants, including e-mail, electronic business messages and other messages, conference calls, etc.;
· Services of network access to resources, including access to commercial and other databases;
· Electronic trading on stock exchanges, over-the-counter stock and foreign exchange markets.
Communication services between network participants and especially the services of network conferences are mainly used by organizations that are engaged in warehouse and small-scale wholesale trade .
The psychological impact of information that a consumer receives through advertising can manifest itself in the actions that the client takes after decrypting the received message. Experts identify three levels of impact that influence consumer behavior. The first one is cognitive, that is, the transmission of information about the product and its benefits. This creates such a communicative effect as brand awareness. The purpose of affective influence is to develop an attitude towards the brand and advertising. The conative effect of an advertising message is realized in the form of an incentive for the consumer to take measures leading to a purchase. These levels of exposure have formed the basis for many advertising models.
Hierarchical models have a common principle – a hierarchy of incentive effects. This means that in order to achieve the set communication goals, the consumer must go through several stages: from obtaining information about the product to buying under the influence of advertising. In this case, it is necessary to go through the previous stage in order to move on to the next stage.
“AIDA” is the first hierarchical communication model introduced by E.S. Elmo Lewis at the end of the 19th century and successfully adapted for advertising by A. Strong at the beginning of the 20th century . This model consists of a series of successive stages of consumer response to an ad message that ultimately lead to a purchase. The considered model consists of four phases. Awareness is the first important stage, because it is at this stage that the advertising message should attract the attention of a potential buyer to the proposed product or service. At this stage, awareness of the company is created. The next level is the desire to make a purchase. At this stage, the company must convince the consumer of the benefits of the product or service and demonstrate to the buyer that the product can meet their needs. And the final stage is the action in which the buyer makes a purchase.
The classic model has 4 levels, but later various changes and modifications were made. For example, components such as purchase satisfaction, motive, and persuasiveness are added. It is worth noting that this model is widely used by companies of different sizes when developing marketing strategies. Indeed, his formula is simple and straightforward .
Later, scientists R. Levidge and G. Steiner expanded the AIDA model to six elements. They divided the successive steps of the model into three groups of communicative effects. The first two levels, awareness and knowledge, refer to cognitive effects. Affective effects are presented in accordance with the author's hierarchy in the form of inclinations and preferences. And the final stages of the model - persuasion and purchase – are among the side effects of communication . This model assumes that consumers go through all phases in a strict linear order. However, the order can be changed depending on the nature of the goods. This model assumes that the effect of advertising exposure occurs over a period of time and cannot lead to an immediate consumer response to a purchase. Hence, the sequence of steps is essential to achieve communication goals.
It differs from other hierarchical models in that it initially assumes that the purchase is determined by the basic elements of the marketing mix: product, price, point of sale, and advertising. It is important to note that this model is focused on the purpose of advertising communication and not on the marketing purpose of the company.
Thanks to a simple and convenient scheme, hierarchical communication advertising models are widely used in practice by various companies. However, the models discussed earlier are often criticized by scientists. The first argument against effect hierarchy models is the absence of the assumption that consumers should not consistently complete all phases of the communication process. After all, not all buyers go through all the steps before buying. It is important to understand that some consumers may stop at some point. The second argument is the lack of consideration of the psychological characteristics of the communication process. Models ignore the influence of socio-psychological factors that can influence the purchase.
Thus, the study of Internet advertising requires the development and testing of a socio-psychological and economic model.