Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
русский, английский, чешский
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Информатика Искусствоведение История Культурология Медицина Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Техника Филология Философия Экология Экономика
M. M. Ravshanova teacher,
Tashkent State Institute of Oriental Studies,
In the era of geopolitical contradictions, the problem of strengthening and preserving the national identity has sharply escalated, which today is considered by scientists of different specialties: political scientists, philosophers, sociologists, and actively discussed in society. The problem of the preservation of identity includes, first of all, a personal identity – that is, the formation of a person's stable ideas about himself as a member of society, and a cultural identity that can evoke a sense of selflessness among the people, allowing to determine their place in transnational space. Identity is formed on the basis of the corresponding national paradigm, at the intersection of the national historical, socio-psychological, socio-cultural and political-cultural identity. Its content includes established features of the national culture, ethnic characteristics, customs, beliefs, myths, moral imperatives, and others. Identity is closely related to the notion of "national character". Global transformation of modern mankind at the turn of the century is characterized by the emergence of new landmarks, new values. The stronger the processes of globalization penetrate into national cultures, the more actively the peoples try to preserve such internal components as culture, traditions, language, religion, ideology. That is, during the period of global transformations, the problems of national identity are aggravated, connected with the desire of peoples for identity and for self-determination in the real world, to defend and preserve their identity. The fact is that the inevitable processes of globalization, penetrate the age-old ways of national cultures, often lead to interethnic, interreligious tensions, often affecting human relations.
The geopolitical situation in the 21st century and the globalization of various forms of social life necessitate a theoretical interpretation of the phenomenon of socio-national identity. In discussions about the specifics of the globalization of the social world, the transition from modernity to postmodernity, the question arises of social and national identity as a stable form of social orientation in a modern multinational society. Globalization and geopolitical contradictions expand the opportunities for social development, and national identity, as a property to preserve the integrity of its nation and realize its belonging to it, becomes an important factor in realizing social potential in conditions of instability. National identity develops in the process of historical changes, representing the stage of the growth of national self-consciousness.
In this context, the concept of national identity can be considered in two aspects:
1) in the philosophical-anthropological, as the process of consciousness of belonging to a particular nation, national culture;
2) the comprehension of national characteristics as an imperative in determining the historical path of the nation's development. Such an approach gives an opportunity to consider the issues of globalization, initially covering primarily the economic and political fields, and now spreading to culture.
In the context of globalization, identity refers to the geopolitical status of the nation-state in the world and, from this point of view, one can speak of the geopolitical identity of the state, which acts as a kind of indicator that allows one to judge how a nation sees itself in relations with the rest of the world. Identity gives significance to the foreign policy orientations of the state, to the ideas of national sovereignty, national interests, national security and development strategy. National and geopolitical identity includes many components, such as world view, national identity and mentality, historical memory and ethnonational images, symbols and behavior stereotypes. Important components of identity are historically formed, relatively formalized and often competing ideas about the place of the country in the world, its cultural and civilizational affiliation, national interests and geopolitical priorities. Geopolitical contradictions that can directly affect the national identity, mentality and foundations of a country. Geopolitics is a hybrid science of a new generation that has been formed in the process of interconnection of geographical, political and economic knowledge, the ideology of foreign policy in each state, it studies the problems of relations of different countries of the world, the consequences of conflicts and ways of solutions to overcome these situations. In the context of globalization and geopolitical contradictions, a purposeful formation of national identification among young people is needed, which will contribute to the transformation of the image of society. This image will be presented "not as an aggregate of surrounding social circumstances of the object of personal activity of the individual, but the image of a large society as its own" we ", that is, the community with which these subjects identify themselves."
The most important prerequisites for intercultural communication are formed as:
1) Protection of one's own culture and language as a condition for preserving national identity;
2) distance, refusal to violate the physical and mental boundaries of another person, the people;
3) tolerance as a recognition of another point of view;
4) an internal attitude toward pluralism as an attempt to look from another perspective to "one's own";
5) attention to the "strange" point of view on "one's own".
The process of globalization, the development of technological progress and universal unification invariably lead to negative consequences and risk the loss of national identity.
To preserve and strengthen national identity, it is necessary not only to remember and know the history of our country, but also to develop a sense of duty and patriotism. The relevance of the philosophical study of patriotism at the beginning of the 21st century is due to the ambiguous nature of the processes of globalization, which transforms the notions of national identity and patriotism as its integral foundation. Patriotism is proposed to be viewed as a value attitude of the subject to his country, attachment to cultural values, customs, traditions, language, literature and everyday life. The memory of the past helps peoples to better know their traditions, their culture, their national values and, starting from them, to go further along the path of social progress. Memory of the past helps to preserve its national identity. Patriotism is inconceivable without national identity. Identity, that is, self-awareness, is inherent not only to the individual, but also to social groups and peoples. Without identity, there is neither an individual, nor a group, nor a people. Geopolitical contradictions and globalization sharply exacerbated the problem of preserving national identity, calling into question the very value of patriotism as its basis. Patriotism in such conditions should include propaganda of cultural values, language, national traditions, custom, and all this for the preservation and strengthening of national identity. It is also necessary to introduce humanitarian values and ideals of life, and not the ideals of destruction, destruction and coercion of other peoples - that is what the modern world needs.
The main features of national identity include: the ability to preserve and reproduce themselves biologically, the existence of common fundamental cultural values, the construction of a field of mutual communication and identification as a special group by other communities or the members of the group themselves. The problem of the crisis of national identity is associated with objective modernization processes, the formation of new value orientations that limit the influence of traditional institutions. The processes of cultural integration in the world represent a serious challenge to the traditional notions of the Japanese about the preservation of national identity and culture. The influence of globalization, the processes of objective convergence of states in political, economic and cultural fields make significant changes both in the life of society as a whole and in the life of individual citizens of different countries. The Japanese nation, relying on the rich historical experience and traditions of national identity, is trying to derive a new formula of its identity primarily for the sake of its own survival, which is achieved through properly constructed relationships with other members of the world community. The ability to recognize by a certain sign system what the interlocutor wanted to convey to us, what his thoughts and perception of ourselves in the case of Japanese culture does not come Thus, despite the strengthening and deepening of interethnic contacts, ethno-cultural differences will continue in the future. Relations in the sphere of politics, economy and culture should develop taking into account the ethnic and civilizational diversity of our world. It should be concluded that the preservation of national identity is an integral and even the main part in the life of each state, namely identity makes people not like each other.