Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
русский, английский, чешский
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Информатика Искусствоведение История Культурология Медицина Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Техника Филология Философия Экология Экономика
A. M. Shekhmirzova Candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor,
L. V. Gribina Candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor,
Adyghe State University,
Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russia
The global trend in the development of Russian education has determined the special importance of practical activity in the preparation of graduates of higher education at different levels, starting with a bachelor's degree. The implementation of the provisions of the Bologna Declaration in the Russian educational system led to the emergence of new generations of federal state educational standards (FSES) for each level of higher education in various areas of training. The Federal State Educational Standard is a fundamental document for the development of a bachelor's program and practice in its structure from the standpoint of a competency-based approach.
At the same time, the inclusion of the competence-based approach in the normative component of the Russian system of higher education does not become sufficient for its implementation in educational practice. The introduction of this approach provides for the need to search for new principles for designing the content and forms of organizing practice in the structure of basic educational programs (OPOP).
The problem of organizing the practice of bachelors in modern higher education in the context of Russia's integration into a single European educational space and taking into account the increasing complexity and dynamism of the socio-economic environment, receives special understanding. Deep systemic transformations are required based on a revision of the traditional approach to training bachelors in the process of practice.
The transfer of the established understanding to the organization of practice in the content of the OPOP designed by the university does not allow the implementation of the requirements of the FGOS of higher education in the preparation of bachelors due to the peculiarities of the competencies being formed as educational results. Compared to the results of education, expressed through the basic units of knowledge, skills and abilities, competencies are integrated results necessary for the successful implementation of professional activities. In this regard, it becomes important to overcome the established stable traditions of organizing university practice as one of the most significant forms of education based on the application of a systematic approach.
Methodological and methodological aspects of designing the content and organization of university practice based on the competence-based approach are presented in the works of such researchers as O. A. Abdullina, Yu. A. Galaguzov, V. S. Morozov, E. S. Garaev, N. I. Kolupaeva , L. A. Osmuk, etc.
The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the conceptual ideas of the following approaches: systemic (S. I. Arkhangelsky, I. V. Blauberg, V. P. Bespalko, V. V. Kraevsky, I. Ya. Lerner, Y. G. Tatur, Y. K. Babansky, E. G. Yudin, A. M. Novikov), personality-activity (K. Rogers, B. G. Afanasyev, A. N. Leontiev, I. Ya. Zimnyaya, S. L. Rubinstein, K. K. Platonov), competence (E. F. Zeer, A. V. Khutorskoy, V. I. Baydenko, A. L. Andreev, V. A. Verbitsky), as well as works devoted to the general laws of the development of higher education (V. P. Bespalko, S. A. Arkhangelsky, V. V. Turchenko, L. F. Kolesnikov), patterns and principles of professional personal development (L. S.Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, B. G. Ananiev, S. L. Rubinstein, E. A. competencies (V. S. Lednev, I. Ya. Lerner, M. N., Skatkin, V. V. Kraevsky, I. Ya. Zimnyaya, A. V. Khutorskoy, N. F. Efremova, N. A. Selezneva, V. I. Baidenko), the construction of information and educational environments (A. A. Andreev, A. M. Korotkov, D. S. Lomakin, M. P. Lapchik, A. N. Tikhonov, G. A. Bordovsky), the formation of practice-oriented competencies (D. P. Zavodchikov, A. M. Pavlova), the essential features of the university training of bachelors in the course of practice (B. G. Ananiev, I. F. Isaev, L. P. Bueva, I. S. Kon); theoretical foundations of lifelong education (V.S. Lednev, V. P. Sergeeva, N. M.Borytko, E. I. Sukhova).
At the same time, the analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature and the generalization of the results of research by scientists on the problem of organizing practice in a multi-level system of higher education allows us to conclude that, along with a significant amount of existing work, the theoretical, methodological and technological foundations of practical activities of bachelors. Along with this, there are no holistic views of the practice of bachelors in the context of the competence model of a university graduate as a condition and an optimal professional environment for the formation of the required competencies. The foregoing determines the undoubted relevance of the research being conducted.
2. The purpose of the work.
The aim of the study is theoretical substantiation and experimental verification of the effectiveness of the formation of bachelor's competencies in practice as an optimal professional environment for their multifaceted manifestation. The achievement of this goal is facilitated by the systematic organization from the first courses of independent work of bachelors using the Moodle learning environment, in the process of which they develop the competencies of self-organization and self-education .
3. Materials and research methods.
The materials of the article are presented taking into account the research results of the studied problem for the period 2005–2009, which are compared with the data of 2010–2014. (with traditional and competency-based approaches). The results obtained at this relatively independent research stage confirm one of the conceptual provisions, the entire set of generalizations of which correlates with the subject area in terms of the requirements for completeness and consistency of the theory under construction.
To solve the research tasks outlined in the work, a set of methods was used: theoretical – comparative analysis of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in various areas of training; analysis of scientific sources within the framework of the research problem; modeling the process and designing the content of practice in different areas of training; empirical – conversations with students; questioning; observation; experiment; statistical measurement methods and mathematical processing of empirical data.
The study involved students of the Adyghe State University (44.03.05 – Pedagogical education / profile "Geography-Biology", profile "Chemistry-Biology" /; 45.03.01 – Philology; 44.03.01 – Pedagogical education / profile "Music" , profile "Fine Arts" /; 49.03.01 – Physical culture) and the Adyghe branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (030900 – Jurisprudence, 081100 / 38.03.04 – State and Municipal Administration, 080200 – Management).
In the theoretical part of the study, it is shown that the general European trend of transformations in higher education within the framework of the Bologna process led to the introduction of a competence-based approach into the Russian educational system. The restructuring of national education provides for profound systemic changes associated with the need to constantly update educational programs with a focus on learning outcomes. This was noted at a conference organized on the eve of the anniversary of the Bologna process in Leuven in 2009, by the European ministers of 46 participating countries. The main purpose of the ministerial meeting was to assess the progress achieved and determine the priorities for higher education in the European space for the coming decades until 2020 . As it was emphasized by the ministers at the conference, such transformations provide for a qualitative increase in the curricula taught at all three levels of higher education.
The aforementioned also applies to practice programs that are part of the structural composition of the general educational program of higher education at all levels and take a significant place in the formation of competencies. Moreover, the comparative analysis of the Federal State Educational Standard of higher education allows us to conclude that as the level of higher education rises, the number of credits allocated for practice increases.
Let us show by the example of the Federal State Educational Standard of all three levels of higher education in the pedagogical direction of training. From the text of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the direction of bachelor's degree 44.03.01 Pedagogical education, as well as in the direction 44.03.05 Pedagogical education (with two profiles), it follows that the labor intensity of the "Practices" block in the standard is determined in the amount of 21–30 credit units, amounting to 1 / 7 part of the total volume of the entire undergraduate program. At the same time, most of the competencies specified in the standard are formed during the practice period, along with mastering the content of the disciplines of the profile. In this context, practice is a condition for the formation of competencies (including research), since when performing tasks and solving problems, there is a need for an integrated application of disciplined cognitive actions and personal qualities. At the same time, it is in practice that a bachelor finds himself in a professional environment that most optimally contributes to the multifaceted manifestation and development of competencies. In approximately the same way, the standards distribute the labor intensity of the "Practices" block, but with the inclusion (integration) of "Research work", which are fully related to the variable part of the master's and postgraduate programs. In the FGOS VO in the direction of preparation 44.04.01 Pedagogical education (master's level), the labor intensity of this block is determined at 45–57 credit units from 120 credit units, which is almost half of the volume of the master's program. The labor intensity of this block is significantly different in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the direction of preparation 44.06.01 Education and Pedagogical Sciences (the level of training of highly qualified personnel), defined in 141 c.u. from 180 credit units of the total volume of the postgraduate program .
The data presented indicate the importance of practice and research work in the structure of the educational process and their role in the formation of the overwhelming majority of competencies provided for by the Federal State Educational Standard in the pedagogical direction of training at all three levels of higher education. The labor intensity of the practice is distributed differently in relation to the total volume of the bachelor's program at the Federal State Educational Standard in the areas of training 030900 – Jurisprudence, 081100 / 38.03.04 – State and Municipal Administration, 080200 – Management. A significant amount of credits in these areas in the Federal State Educational Standard is determined in favor of theoretical training, and only 1/16 of the total volume of the entire bachelor's program is practice. At the same time, a sharp increase in the number of credits for practice and research work is found in the standards at subsequent levels of higher education in these areas of training.
In the Federal State Educational Standard in these areas of master's degree training, the labor intensity of practice and research and development is close to the number of credits in Pedagogical education, and in postgraduate programs, the labor intensity in credits is the same. It should be noted that a clear orientation of the Russian higher education system towards international standards is observed in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the areas of training highly qualified personnel.
One of the universal competencies that must be mastered by a graduate of a postgraduate program, regardless of the specific field of study, is expressed in the willingness to participate in solving scientific and scientific and educational problems as part of Russian and international research teams (UK-3). The relevance of the research undertaken by us is increasing, given that for the formation of UK-3 it is necessary to master a high level of research competence even while mastering the bachelor's program in accordance with the types of professional activity for which it is focused. Therefore, the study was based on a prognostic basis, taking into account the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard at the next two levels of higher education regarding the integrity and consistency of the representation of the image of the result of education upon completion of the educational program.
To reveal the essential features of the practice of bachelors, the study compares the traditional and competence-based approaches (taking into account the analysis of research results in the periods from 2005–2009 and 2010–2014), the primary difference of which to the organization and assessment of the results of its passage by bachelors lies in the origins their occurrence. The sphere of national education has been operating with knowledge, abilities, skills since the time of Ya. A. Komensky, while competencies refer to the professional sphere, taken as the norm in the educational sphere of foreign countries.
The emergence of a competence-based approach in the Russian system of higher education is considered by researchers as an alternative to the practice-oriented personal qualities necessary for students in modern socio-cultural conditions and the implementation of future professional activities, abstract theoretical knowledge. Hence, the criteria for evaluating the results of practical training with the traditional approach were knowledge, skills and abilities as components of the sociocultural generalized human experience and general cultural values.
Competencies and competencies have appeared along with a change in orientation from the educational to the professional sphere, the constituent elements of which are the market economy and the professional activity itself. Consideration of the etymology of these concepts within the framework of law allows us to conclude that competence will relate to the area of competence with a certain boundary.
In turn, the value of competence will correspond to a certain place occupied by a person. Abroad, it has long been the norm for an approach to the educational process, in which the requirements for specialists are indicated by the professional sphere, as well as their selection based on the results of the formed competencies. As noted by foreign researchers, the competence-based approach ensures the quality of training specialists, orienting the educational system to the modern needs of the world labor market [5; 6; 7]. In their opinion, this approach makes it possible to match the personal needs of a person to integrate into social activities and social needs to use the potential of each individual for his own self-development in the economic, cultural and political spheres of life.
The models of a specialist and a graduate contribute to the understanding of the competencies and competencies in demand in the professional sphere. The multidimensionality, ambiguity and difference of these concepts are presented in the works of such scientists as Yu. G. Tatur, V. I. Baidenko, V. A. Bolotov, S. R. Sirmbard, O. I. Matynyuk, I. I. Winter, R. N. Azarov, V. A. Bogoslovsky .
Within the framework of our research, the competence model of a graduate in the system of multilevel higher education is considered as a component of the general educational program, respectively, separately for each level, guaranteeing the high-quality implementation of future professional activities . The model provides a set of competencies necessary for a specific level and direction of training that a graduate should have as a result of mastering the corresponding program. The practice of bachelors, being a structural component of OOP, is part of the competence model of a graduate of the bachelor's level. Therefore, the organization and assessment of the results of the practical training by bachelors takes place in accordance with the graduate's competence model, which determines the goals of the implementation of the educational program based on the integrated classification of competencies.
Within the framework of the model, a list of competencies formed during the period of practice is determined, taking into account the requirements of the professional sphere, adequate methods and technologies of teaching, means and criteria for assessing the expected result upon its completion are selected. The organization of practice in third-party institutions allows you to include bachelors in a professional environment, the interaction in which becomes optimal for the formation and multifaceted manifestation of competencies in the structure of their personality.
During the period of practice, favorable conditions are created for the formation of graduates of higher education programs, including bachelors, the competence of self-organization and self-education (generalized formulation). Mastering this competence, as shown by the comparative analysis of the Federal State Educational Standard of higher education, is mandatory regardless of the level and specific area of training (as part of the list of general cultural and / or universal competencies) [3; 4].
To achieve a high level of formation of the competencies specified by the standard, including self-organization and self-education (minimum / threshold, advanced and high), a variety of teaching methods and technologies (including project ones) are implemented, the potential of the Moodle distance system is used. The results of their achievements upon completion of the practice are recorded by bachelors in their individual portfolios, stimulating them to reflection and further personal advancement in professional activity, to building a future career. Presentation and analysis of the empirical numerical data obtained by us as a result of the research carried out is the task of another separate article.
The competence-based approach to organizing the practice of bachelors provides for the need for mutual cooperation of teachers and students in the formation of competencies as learning outcomes. At the same time, it should be understood that he does not deny the importance of knowledge, but focuses on the effective use of it. As it was revealed in the course of the study, competencies exist in the form of activity, and not in the form of information about it, in contrast to knowledge. They are built up in the learning process, contributing to the inclusion of a method of action in the internal resources of the individual, as opposed to skills.
Competencies are manifested, in contrast to skills, consciously. They are not brought to automatism and turn into a skill, but are improved through awareness of the general activity basis in the direction of integration with other competencies. So, we can conclude that competencies are not limited to a set of knowledge, skills and abilities or to any of these elements. They are associated with the success of professional activity and, consequently, the personality in society, in a broader context. This European understanding of the interconnectedness of competence and success (in professional and career growth) is embedded in the construction of a competency model of a graduate of a bachelor's program, in which the place of practice is determined.
4. Research results and their discussion.
The study was based on a prognostic basis, taking into account the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard for all three levels of higher education in relation to a holistic and systematic representation of the image of the result of education upon completion of the educational program.
A continuation of the undertaken research in the multilevel system of higher education is the consideration of practice within the competence model of a graduate of master's and postgraduate programs. At the same time, in order to achieve the result of education provided for in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education upon completion of the educational program at all three levels, systemic transformations are required in higher education, taking into account the establishment of significant subjective relationships between all participants in the educational process. This is confirmed by the Communiqué of the Conference with the participation of European ministers in the field of higher education, in which special attention is paid to the mutual cooperation of faculty and students in the formation of competencies as learning outcomes, taking into account international guidelines in different subject areas . It can be assumed that the sequential formation of competencies, including research, with an orientation to the international level in the process of interdisciplinary research, is achievable at the third level of higher education in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard in the areas of training highly qualified personnel.
The aspects of organizing the practice of bachelors in various areas of training presented in the article in the context of the competence-based approach are considered by the authors on the basis of the existing significant fruitful experience of university teaching.
The results obtained in the course of the study allow us to conclude that, based on the essential features of competencies, the effective formation of most of them declared in the Federal State Educational Standard of higher education in various areas of preparation of the bachelor's level occurs in the process of practice (acting as a necessary condition). The inclusion of bachelors during this period in accordance with the general educational program and curricula in the professional environment in the best way ensures the achievement of the expected results upon completion of training in the form of mastering competencies for the successful implementation of future professional activities.