V. S. Dzhabrailova, PhD, Associate professor;
Moscow State University of Humanities and Economics,
Various types of speech in addition to the linguistic material from which they are built, require, as a necessary condition for their existence, the presence of three components: the topic of the message, the situation in which the communicative act is carried out and the participants in this act, who have both linguistic and extra linguistic knowledge. An important point for research is the provision that non-linguistic entities are considered one of the necessary conditions for achieving translation adequacy, since in many cases the content of the text is revealed through them. However, it is a known fact that the volume of these non-linguistic factors differs among different cultures, and based on this, a translator should not always rely on the fact that the object described, for example, in the source text will be available to a representative of the target language.
Due to these factors, a translator must have all the necessary skills set to convey the content of the source text in a form that is understandable for the target language receptor. In this regard, in the linguistic literature, this "phenomenon" is called the pragmatic aspect of translation. So, according to L. S. Barkhudarov, the concept of pragmatics in linguistics is by no means reduced only to the concept of pragmatic meanings of linguistic and sign units in general [1, p. 67]. However, the pragmatics of translation is determined by V. N. Komissarov as “the influence of the necessity to reproduce the pragmatic potential of the original over the course and result of the translation process and the attempt to provide the desired effect on the target language receptor” [2, p. 210]. In this case, the pragmatic potential of the original is understood as the ability of the text to produce a communicative effect, to induce a pragmatic attitude towards the communicated in the receptor, in other words, to exert a pragmatic effect on the recipient of information.
Thus, due to the desire to achieve accuracy and adequacy in the translation process, the translator needs to select and highlight those components of meaning that require accurate and complete conveying, along with those components that should/can be omitted. And, based on these criteria, translators face the task of using a wide range of stylistic or lexical-semantic transformations, since the task of accurate translation is not to reproduce the utterance in the form in which it was presented in the original, but to implement it using various means of the target language with the similar pragmatic purpose.
The translation process is conventionally divided into two stages. At the first stage of the translation process, which involves the translator acting as a receptor, the translator tries to get as much information as possible from the source text, which is impossible without the extensive background knowledge that a native speaker of the source language possesses. The second stage is to convey this information to the translation receptor. The translator is to take into account the fact that the receptor may have different background knowledge, in contrast to the native speaker, whose message needs to be reproduced in another language. However, if such discrepancies prevent adequate perception and understanding of the original text, then the translator makes changes to the translation text, which, thereby, contribute to a full understanding of the original message.
Thus, due to the need to achieve accuracy and adequacy in the translation process, the translator is to choose those components of meaning that require accurate and complete conveying, along with those components that should be omitted. And, based on these criteria, translators face the task of using a wide range of stylistic or lexical-semantic transformations, since the task of accurate translation is not to reproduce the utterance in the form in which it was presented in the original, but to implement it using various means of the target language with a similar pragmatic purpose.
It is known that translation plays an important role in the communication process, including in the political sphere. Political communication is a complex communicative phenomenon of political discourse, which, according to A.P. Chudinova, should include "all components present in the mind of the speaker and listener, capable of speech production and perception influencing" . Social and political publicistic texts include speeches by state, party and public figures, etc., and it should be noted that a characteristic feature of these texts is the expression of a certain point of view on a particular issue; creating a certain frame of mind; refutation of certain views and strengthening of particular principles. In other words, socio-political publicistic texts are intended to have a propaganda impact on the audience, and therefore, the texts of this type are characterized by polemics, passionate tone. Thus, in the process of translating a political text, distortions of the original are absolutely not allowed, since an inaccurate or incomplete translation can lead to irreparable consequences, for example, such as a political conflict, etc.
So, for example, according to research by E. V. Breus and V. N. Komissarov, the English newspaper-journalistic style requires a neutral presentation of information, since it contains expression and appropriate stylistic means, but the frequency of the use of such means is lower than in Russian. However, in the Russian newspaper and journalistic style, many emotionally colored words, as a result of their frequent use, largely lose their connotative meaning and go unnoticed by the Russian receptor. Their automatic transfer into the translation text creates the effect of emotional overload and distracts the attention of the English reader from those lexical units that are really necessary to convey the communicative attitude of persuasion.
Social and political publicistic texts should be well recognizable and easily comprehensible. It should also be noted that the evaluative information contained in socio-political publicistic texts can be decoded in a broad communicative-pragmatic context, consisting of linguistic and extra linguistic components that play an essential role in translation. The translator, resorting to lexical means in texts of this type, can convey information and reflect the national psychology and mentality that appear implicitly in the text, therefore, in this case, stylistic features of the socio-political text play a significant role. Thus, the decoding process is meaningful for translation as it is about understanding the message. The translator, who seeks to adequately convey the message of a publicistic text and has the task not only to convey the content of the text, but also to cause the corresponding reaction of the receptors of the translated text [3, p. 127].
So, summing up the above and considering the features and problems of translation of socio-political publicistic texts, it can be noted that the translation of special texts, especially politically biased texts, is a complex and responsible process. Thus, it should be noted that the purpose of the newspaper-journalistic style of speech is to inform, transmit information while simultaneously influencing the reader or listener, instilling in them ideas and encouraging them to take certain actions. We also found that social and political vocabulary is characterized by emotional colouring, and also, this type differs from texts belonging to other functional styles, stylistic, grammatical and lexical features.