Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
русский, английский, чешский
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Информатика Искусствоведение История Культурология Медицина Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Техника Филология Философия Экология Экономика
V. N. Goncharov, Doctor of Philosophy, associate professor,
North Caucasus Federal University,
Communication is an integral phenomenon of the human life world, providing an intersubjective nature of its formation and functioning [4, p. 118–124]. J. Habermas emphasis on the study of modern interaction mechanisms, so his understanding of the living world is focused on the study of everyday peace as a product of communicative actions. I am expressed using the terminology of the researcher himself, any action is mastering a certain situation, and two aspects of action are conjugate in this case: teleological and communicative. The teleological aspect is to fulfill each individual's planned sequence of actions to achieve the goal. The communicative aspect is directed to a dialogue with other factors of social spaces and establish mutual understanding with them [2, p. 168–177].
Life world, in turn, acts as a border of communication, causing the presence of communication between all participants in communications; conditions of communication, since the presence of a living world is a fundamental property of the community of various individuals, overcoming the difference of points of view, as well as the source of the meaning of communication, on which formulated in the process of interaction point of view [1, p. 95–100].
The following social communication functions are allocated.
The function of mutual understanding, consisting of using and updating the stock of social stereotypes of behavior and assessing the situation. Faced in the process of communication with a certain unexplained situation, the individual selects the most appropriate stamp from its own arsenal, which is either used without changes, or (in the case when mutual understanding in the communicative act cannot be achieved without concessions of the source point of view) is subjected to minor transformations [3, p. 80–85].
The function of social integration, manifested in the awareness of the individual of the generality of its point of view, expressed in the process of communication, with similar points of view belonging to other people [5, p. 6–9]. Such identification allows you to realize the belonging, not only formal, but also actual, to a specific social group or the social institute. This principle is used in modern Western and some Russian companies to build a corporate ethics system.
The function of socialization contributing to the formation of individual and social identity of person [12, p. 15–18]. The formation of his own point of view and awareness of its equivalence points of view of other people leads to the interiorization of social norms and their assimilation. The individual adopts the value orientation of its group and begins to be consciously reproduced in the process of communication with other people [11, p. 282–284].
These functions contribute to the development of three components of the vital world allocated by J. Habermas: culture, society and personality. If the culture is a stock of all available social stereotypes, then only society can designate mechanisms to use these knowledge in the desired context. The narrative of communicative experience produced in the process of individual acts of communication leads to awareness of the unity of points of view expressed relative to individual situations, that is, it contributes to the formation of personal identity. The similarity of a single point of view with similar estimates expressed by representatives of a certain social group leads to the formation of social identity. Thus, communication contributes to the socialization of the individual, as well as maintaining and transforming the stock of social stereotypes, how to actualization and legitimation [8, p. 87–93].
In this sense, the human life world is a continuous consumer of information, which is signed through the sieve of stereotypes of behavior, perception, interpretation, in order to be discarded, or to promote the transformation of the available stereotypes towards greater adequacy of the current situation [6, p. 136–143]. Information space includes many life worlds of individual social factors, but at the same time it is not reduced to any of them, since the source is external in relation to the individual, information from which needs reflection and interiorization [9, p. 78-82].
Separate communicative acts whose participants turn to the stock price of socially significant information in society, actualizing it, or changing in accordance with the principle of coherence, are an integral part of social life [13, p. 39–44]. At the same time, in modern society, the structure of the information space form technologies and means of communication, allowing to establish contact between the various parties of the dialogue, regardless of the space-time coordinates of their functioning [14, p. 10–16]. The information space, from the point of view of the communication approach, is a set of communication technologies that ensure the interaction between the manufacturer, the transmitter and the consumer of information.
The difference in the methods of communication determines the originality of the information space in various historical epochs. Therefore, based on the periodization of the dynamics of the information space of M. McLuhan, one can designate the following classification, in accordance with the main methods of communication – oral and written (traditional society), book (industrial society) and electronic (post-industrial society).
The specificity of the information space within the framework of modern society from the standpoint of the communication approach is to form electronic communication tools to overcome the boundaries of the borders of state actors and the formation of a transnational information space. The current information space is formed from a variety of communication channels, which, on the one hand, facilitates for the individual the process of obtaining information, and on the other, it creates difficulties for rationalizing communication and build its own identity [10, p. 57–62].
The growth and informatization of the communications sphere – these factors also affect the nature of the political structure of society, a person is closed on the private sphere of own interests, while the sphere is becoming a subordinate, which forces political figures to adapt to the public. The symptomatic phenomenon of the transformation of policies in a kind of television show is becoming a change in the main type of advisers of any political leader – if in the 60s of the twentieth century as such performed compilers of speeches, then in the 90s of the twentieth century, the creators of images come to replace. The art of belief is inferior to the art of making an appropriate impression on the television audience.
Changing value priorities could not but cause a corresponding response in the structure of the social and political space of modern society. The tempo of manufacturing and consumption of information is enhanced, which leads to the phenomenon of Future Shock, which describes American futurologist A. Toffler in one of its works, that is, the speed of social interactions and related changes in social infrastructure increases many times. In the sociocultural situation in which the main factor affecting the social success of a person becomes the level of its information support, the leading social institution becomes education [7, p. 123–128]. The main importance is already acquired by the basic education and a set of knowledge that makes the subject by a specialist in a specific field of science or practice, but mastering the skills of obtaining new knowledge and, accordingly, readiness to continuously increase or even change its qualifications.
The main factor, structuring and changing the information space of post-industrial society, is the activities of electronic communications, primarily the Internet. Since globalized information space has an impact on all spheres of public life, it is of particular interest to find out the role that the equipment is played by electronic communication in the processes of the functioning of social institutions and vital activity of individuals.
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