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Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
русский, английский, чешский
Идёт приём материалов
Информатика Искусствоведение История Культурология Медицина Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Техника Филология Философия Экология Экономика
L. V. Kramarenko, Senior Assistant to the Prosecutor of Yalta,
Honored Worker of the Social Sphere of the Republic of Crimea,
Yalta, Republic of Crimea, Russia
At the present stage of development of our state in the conditions of socio-economic and legal transformations, interest in the modernization of the socio-pedagogical sphere is rapidly growing.
In the conditions of reforming education in accordance with the updated paradigm of education, carried out in the interests of the individual, family, society and the state, the problem of modernizing the system of professional training of future social teachers is becoming extremely relevant.
The formation of the readiness of students – future social teachers for professional activities, in a period of systemic changes, should be filled with social content. One of the priorities in this case is the search for effective ways to ensure the unity of theory and practice in a multilevel educational process, the development of an integral system of continuous educational and practical training of students.
In the system of vocational training, the most important place is occupied by pedagogical practice, aimed at the implementation of pedagogical knowledge, skills and abilities of students and the improvement of the pedagogical skills of future social teachers.
In our opinion, the most productive professional training of social teachers is possible on the basis of institutions in the field of social support for the population that effectively solve the problems of the family, children and youth, in particular, centers of social services for families, children and youth.
In connection with the admission of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation and the formation of new subjects in its composition, Crimea is in a new legal field, and the network of social service centers for families, children and youth is becoming one of the most important subjects of social and pedagogical work. At the same time, the experience of social service centers for families, children and youth as a base of practice for future social educators has not been sufficiently studied so far and requires further reflection.
O. V. Bezpalko dealt with certain issues of studying the pedagogical activity of social service centers for families, children and youth [9, p. 268], T.V. Semigina [3, p. 188], M. I. Kirikov [8, p. 5], I. D. Zvereva [10, p. 328], A. I. Kapskaya [4, p. 92], A. M. Grinenko [2, p. 210], T. N. Fateeva [7, p. 8] and other researchers.
The purpose of the article is to study the experience of the activities of social service centers for families, children and youth in the implementation of the pedagogical model for the development of professional competence of future social teachers in the process of pedagogical practice. The practice of students of higher pedagogical educational institutions is an integral part of the educational and professional training of specialists, the main task of which is to consolidate the theoretical knowledge gained in the learning process, the formation of students' professional skills, mastering modern methods and forms of work.
During the practice, the foundations of the experience of professional activity are laid, the prerequisites for the personal development of the future specialist are formed. Professional practice is the main component of the student's practical training process. It is built on the basis of the continuity and consistency of its implementation, the integration of theory and practice.
The purpose of the practice is to master students with modern methods, forms of organization and tools in the field of their future profession, to develop in them, on the basis of the knowledge gained in a higher educational institution, professional skills and abilities for making independent decisions during a specific work, to educate the need to systematically update their knowledge and creatively apply it in practice.
Modern higher professional education puts forward the task of forming a wide range of professional competencies of graduates, and the country's universities are interested in training competitive specialists who are in demand in the modern labor market .
In recent years, the problem of practice-oriented training in higher educational institutions has become particularly relevant. New professional standards determine the competence-based approach of the future teacher, which is formed in the context of continuous educational practice.
One of the bases of practice for the future social pedagogue in the Crimea is the centers of social services for families, children and youth. These institutions for the Russian state are a positive legacy of the system of social work bodies created and developed in Ukraine. Since 1992, a new institution of social education has been created in Ukraine – a center of social services for youth, which was predetermined by a number of factors: the acquisition of independence by Ukraine, socio-economic restructuring in the country, the rapid spread of negative phenomena among the youth.
The well-known researcher A. M. Grinenko considered the centers of social services for youth as special institutions authorized by the state to participate in the implementation of the state youth policy by carrying out social work with children and youth [2, p. 210].
In the textbook "Introduction to Social Work", as well as the textbook "Social Pedagogy" edited by Professor A. I. Kapskaya, the centers of social services for youth are understood as specialized institutions that are entrusted by the state with the tasks of practical implementation of support for the social formation and development of youth [3, p. 188; 7, p. 92]. All centers of social services for youth are united by a common goal, they are a single mechanism of the state in the implementation of social policy for youth, thus forming a system - a set of elements united by common features and purpose [5; 6].
The system of social service centers is characterized by hierarchical structure and orderliness of its structural units, which ensures its stability, flexibility and dynamism. Based on the results of the All-Crimean referendum held on March 16, 2014 in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, which supported the issue of the reunification of Crimea with Russia as a subject of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Crimea was admitted to the Russian Federation.
The bodies of state power and local self-government of the Republic of Crimea, which include, among other things, the subjects of social work, were accepted into the new legal field of the Russian Federation, which led to systemic changes in the functioning of these bodies.
It should be noted that in the Russian Federation there are centers for social assistance to families and children, which are similar in scope to the considered centers of social services for families, children and youth, but they work in a stationary form, do not have a hierarchical structure, and are not an obligatory link in implementation of state social policy.
T. N. Fateeva believes that the center for social assistance to families and children is a multifunctional institution focused on creating conditions for the implementation of comprehensive programs of social assistance to various categories of families with children in the form of socio-pedagogical, psychological, medical, legal, and economic services. Such a center is an open socio-pedagogical system that contributes to the prevention of neglect of minors, integrating various types of socially significant leisure activities and communication of children and adolescents, complementing the educational potential of traditional institutions of socialization of the younger generation [7, p. 8]. M. I. Kirikova considered the centers of social assistance to families and children in a broad sense – as state institutions related to the system of social services, which are designed to promote the implementation of family policy in the Russian Federation [8, p. 5].
In the new legal realities, it is extremely necessary to take into account the positive experience of the network of social service centers for families, children and youth as a basis for undergraduate practice for future social educators.
The experience accumulated by the centers of social services for families, children and youth of the Republic of Crimea in this area of work, in cooperation with other subjects, is new in the Russian Federation and necessary on the way to improving the social guidelines of our country.
So, for example, in accordance with the agreement between the State Budgetary Institution of the Republic of Crimea "Yalta Center for Social Services for the Family, Children and Youth" and the Humanitarian and Pedagogical Academy (branch) of the FSAEI HE "KFU named after. IN AND. Vernadsky” in Yalta, students of the specified educational institution, mastering the undergraduate program in the direction of preparation 44.03.02 “Psychological and pedagogical education”, undergo pre-diploma practice on the basis of the center.
Pre-diploma practice is the final one in the system of applied training of bachelors and includes conducting scientific research on the topic of final qualifying work (bachelor's work), applying and deepening the theoretical knowledge gained during the training period in practice, as well as acquiring practical skills for solving professional problems that correspond to the competence model graduate.
Pre-diploma practice is carried out in accordance with the schedule of the educational process with a break from training, total labor intensity: 6 credits - 216 hours. The semester of undergraduate practice is the 8th.
In the process of this practice, students should form the following general professional and professional competencies:
OPK-1. The ability to take into account the general, specific patterns and individual characteristics of mental and psychophysiological development, the features of the regulation of human behavior and activity at various age levels. Know: general laws of mental and psychophysiological development, features of regulation of human behavior and activity at different age stages. Be able to: apply knowledge of general, specific patterns and individual characteristics of mental and psychophysiological development, features of the regulation of human behavior and activity at various age levels in quasi-professional activities. Possess: understanding the meaning of self-development and self-regulation of behavior and activity.
PC-26. Ability to communicate effectively with educational staff and other child development professionals. Know: the main forms, types, types and strategies of psychological and pedagogical interaction of participants in the educational process, barriers in psychological and pedagogical interaction, methodological foundations of age-related psychological development, the basis and principles for constructing age-related periodization of human development, the formation of a request for psychological education. To be able to: actively interact with children, parents and teachers, explain at a good quality level, bring to the attention of psychological information related to problems in the mental development of children and adolescents or reveal their different sides, quickly navigate in problematic, conflict situations, complex cases that arise in adolescence, to carry out the most appropriate psychological and pedagogical interaction of participants in the educational process, to use modern means (forms) of activating thinking in different groups, to be able to discuss and correctly express their point of view. Own: modern methods of psychological influence in building a dialogue between a psychologist and parents, a psychologist and teachers necessary for effective educational activities, the skills of building a subject-subject scheme of educational interaction, the implementation of a favorable psychological contact in interaction, methods of organizing joint activities and interpersonal interaction of subjects of the educational environment, skills of public speech, argumentation, discussion and controversy.
SK-4. The ability to apply technologies of socio-pedagogical work and design socio-pedagogical processes, taking into account the specifics of the region, community, subjects of interaction. Know: the basics of general theoretical disciplines to the extent necessary to solve socio-pedagogical, scientific, methodological, organizational and managerial tasks; bases of legal support of professional activity of the social pedagogue; the main forms, methods, basic and private technologies of the work of a social teacher. Be able to: work with various social, age and gender, religious, ethnic groups and individuals in need of social assistance and protection; select forms, methods and technologies adequate to social and pedagogical tasks; organize the activities of social and pedagogical services in educational and social institutions; apply socio-pedagogical technologies in various types of activities (scientific and methodological; socio-pedagogical; educational; cultural and educational; correctional and developmental; managerial, etc.). Own: the basics of organizational and managerial, research, analytical and socio-pedagogical activities.
Students study the main activities of the institution, staffing, structure, legal framework of state support for families and persons in difficult life situations and socially dangerous situations. Analyze the composition and content of services provided as part of the implementation of social work with families, children and youth, the principles of providing services and the requirements for working with service recipients (in particular, with the problem of disability, as well as in the framework of the implementation and organization of post-boarding support for persons from among children orphans and children left without parental care). Consider the essence of the forms and methods of social work with clients of the institution.
Participate in the organization of interdepartmental interaction between the organs of the prevention system to prevent neglect and juvenile delinquency, as well as in holding group events, city actions for families, children and youth. They study "work with a case" as a key technology for working with families who find themselves in a difficult life situation and a socially dangerous situation. This type of practice is based mainly on the diagnostic component, students in the process of practice master the psychological and pedagogical methods and technologies of diagnostic activity, which is a fundamental factor in the professional preparation of students for socio-pedagogical activities.
The final stage of the practice is built from self-diagnosis of the level of professional competence through reflection and analysis of the student's own activities, drawing up a report on the internship with the diary attached, which describes the daily activities in accordance with the tasks performed, to participation in the final conference and passing the test in the form of a colloquium, with the goal which is to test the knowledge and skills acquired by students in the process of practice.
Particular attention in the process of organizing practice deserves the holding of the final scientific and practical conference, at which students' reports on their practical activities are heard with the presentation of presentation materials, as well as the main aspects of the procedural side of the practice, such as the structure, content and results of students' independent activities, are discussed and worked out. The practical activity of students contributes to the consolidation of the skills of educational, scientific and professional activities, as well as personal realization and self-actualization. During the practice, students have the opportunity to verify the correctness or fallacy of professional self-determination.
In the process of practice, practical and theoretical knowledge are integrated and differentiated, real socio-pedagogical problems are realized and the most effective ways to solve them are identified. During practice, students learn to see the socio-pedagogical meaning of their activities, which makes it possible to realize the social value of their work and feel self-respect. The formation of a student as a social teacher occurs not only in the process of assimilation of the content and modern methods and technologies of vocational education, but also in the development of his individual style of work in the course of practice.
Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that the development of a network of social service centers for families, children and youth of the Republic of Crimea is the most important step in the social policy of our state, and the practical training of students on the basis of the centers is the leading link in the professional socio-pedagogical education of future social teachers.
In the process of undergraduate practice at the centers of social services for families, children and youth, students synthesize a minimum experience in a given field with established personal qualities, which forms the professional competence of future specialists.
The study of the practical activities of students on the basis of centers of social services for families, children and youth will allow us to delimit the scope of activities between the subjects of social work, especially in terms of providing socio-psychological and socio-pedagogical services.
The current direction of the study is to study the positive experience of training future social teachers on the basis of a network of social service centers for families, children and youth, which will allow, in cooperation with other social service providers, to improve work with needy categories of the population.
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