L. G. Matveeva, professor
Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
T. V. Kushnarenko, the associate professor
Don state technical university, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Regions of the Russian Federation are greatly differentiated according to their resource base, but each of them has a range of resources, enabling the functioning of the economy of the region and shaping its features and territorial specialization. At the same time the objective influence of the imperatives of modernization on the resource component of the regions, complemented with their need for balanced development that highlights the particularly acute resource shortages of peripheral areas, which necessitates inter-resource flows, determined with the prevailing technological orders. With this in mind, the spatial regulation of resource flows is seen as a necessary condition for the involvement of peripheral areas in the modernization process can be presented as a method of forming the economic framework of the region.
Regional economic system has a complicated internal structure and a set of socio-economic subsystems, interconnected and interacting with each other in the production, distribution, exchange and consumption, forming a single coherent social and economic structure within a defined territory. In the system of documents defining the direction of regional policy, ensuring comprehensive socio-economic development of the regions is declared as a priority task. In other words, the solution to this problem involves a focus on achieving balanced regional reproductive systems, which ensures compliance with the proportions between individual sub-systems of the region, as well as the rational placement and use of resources in the region .
Management of balanced economic development of the region involves ensuring of rational relationships between all elements of the regional system, forming the conditions for the smoothing of the contrast of levels of socio-economic development of the regional subsystems and the welfare of the population in the region. However, in practice the balance is realized only in the reproductive aspect, that is in ensuring proportional development between related industries produced volumes of resources and needs in them, due to the lack of a clear statement of the category «regional economic system» as the object of regional management. According to the authors, the regional economic system should be viewed as an integrated spatially organized socio-economic system that ensures consistent interaction between participants of reproduction processes, including issues of rational distribution of resource flows in the direction of achieving balanced intra-regional development. Accordingly, it is possible to propose the following interpretation of the category «balanced regional economic development» – an effective and dynamic combination of spatial and sectoral development of the region, as well as the capacity of the existing structures, providing the solution of the socio-economic problems and increasing investment attractiveness.
An example of asymmetry in levels of development of the territories, as well as a high degree of multiculturalism is South of Russia, which is characterized by clearly expressed deformation of intraregional proportions. Innovative development resources are concentrated in regional centers, while peripheral areas even with certain resources for modernization, due to a number of general and specific to the region limiting factors impeding the processes of diffusion of innovation, become the suppliers of these resources, thus, functioning within the framework of raw materials and transit models of development.
In view of the distinguished asymmetry and high multistructure economy of Southern Russia it is determined that activation of non-primary substantial potential development of its regions is laid down in the joint use of existing structures. In the context of growing external threats, increased competition in the global market, as well as significant changes in the geo-economic and geopolitical situation, the main task is the formation of non-raw model of the Russian economy, which necessitates its significant structural changes in the direction of formation of rational sectoral proportions. As fairly marks K. A. Soloveitchik, despite the active policy of formation of large corporate structures, the modern development of industrial production has a clearly expressed regional character, that allows us to consider the problem of the formation of non-raw economic framework of national economic development through the prism of combined regional structures.
Despite the fact that in recent years the concept of «economic framework» is widely used in various program documents of strategic character, it is insufficiently studied and has different interpretations. In addition, the new imperatives of the national economy are the basis to redefine the essential characteristics of the economic framework, identify its system and structure forming functions, as well as the role and place of individual industries and activities in the formation of the main elements of this framework.
Initially, the concept of «economic framework of the territory” appeared under the concept of economic space and was associated with its structuring by the investigation of the functional interactions of individual territories (cities). For example, large-scale studies of economic framework of the city are reflected in the works of W. Izard, A. Lesch, N. N. Baransky  and others. Within these studies the concept was viewed as a collection of some nodal points – focus of business activity which have economic relations, as well as circulation of material, transport, information and other flows. These nodes and flows provide some organization (structuring) of economic space and depending on the intensity of the circulating flows, as well as their substantial characteristics determine the level of polarization of the territory.
Obviously, such an interpretation to some extent ignores the problems of the peripheral in relation to the key points of the problem areas and limits the structuring of economic space in the region flows considering relations between the poles of growth. In general, we can say that economic space was originally structured within the opposition «center-periphery». This trend has continued to the present time. Therefore, the basic conceptual idea of the spatial development of Russian regions, as reflected in the regional strategies of socio-economic development, is to determine the points of growth, perspective directions of economic specialization and areas of their localization. At the same time, in recent years more and more emphasis is placed on the need to ensure balanced development of the regional economy, including through the rationalization of resource flows. At the same time, under the system of balanced framework of the economy development we mean the combination of separate considered social, infrastructural, innovative, economic and ecological frameworks as independent sets of spatially organized structures, that appears to be incorrect because it does not take into account the interpenetration and interaction, and does not provide reconciliation and synchronization of key directions of development of individual sectors of the economy. As a result, it violates the integrity of the strategic program of measures and mechanisms of regional development.
According to the authors, we need a slightly different view of the balanced structure of supporting framework in the economic sphere of the region – as a bulk hierarchical structure, which hierarchy levels are determined by the functional roles of regional entities in ensuring the achievement of the aims of strategic development of the Russian economy. In this regard, it appears that the research of the problems of resource support of the economy of a macro-region is necessary to carry out in a two-way interaction: the single-level (between the center and the periphery within a single macro-region) and the multilevel (between regions) territorial entities as resource sharing creates an entire economic system, its stability and improving balance. Such an approach involving functional and hierarchical view on the studies of economic framework of the region as a bulk network, allows not only to carry out a comprehensive review of technological interconnectedness of «supporting» enterprises (growth points), but also provides the inclusion into the structure the scientific and financial organizations, support, service and providing productions (including companies and organizations of peripheral areas), transport, communication and innovation infrastructures with the ability to further identify the most promising technologies and forms of interaction of managing entities of various type structures, necessary to start the modernization process based on the combination of the principles of regulation and self-development. Furthermore, the proposed vector of investigations obviates «linear» methods of describing the processes of modernization, considering them in one functional area, and enables to focus the research efforts on identifying and using the synergetic potential of economic entities with different functional levels of depth, as well as various technological structures. It should be noted that if in planned economy the formation of the economic framework of the territory and management of resource flows was based on the data of economic efficiency that go beyond the direct financial interests of participants in the project, in a market economy, the economic territory of the frame is formed under the influence of competitive mechanisms for the transfer of capital in the most profitable areas of activity. It is changing the nature of relations between enterprises. In the planned economy into the basis of interactions of enterprises were put above all, the principles of technological interconnectedness using various forms of cooperation and specialization of production and business activities, which is reflected in the «schemes of productive forces», «settlement patterns», «regional planning schemes» etc. In modern conditions, the integration of interactions is based on the desire to obtain and strengthen the synergy effect through the rational combination of the potential of companies.
However, as noted by V. Knyaginin currently the activity of large corporations is manifested primarily in the commodity sector, but «most of the regions were formed as centralized and hierarchical, gathered around the dominant corporations. In this connection, in their plans and projects, they are destined to follow the plans and projects of latest» . Due to the current industrial structure of the economy of the Russian regions with significant bias towards primary industries (usually of the fuel and energy complex), which is in conflict with the objectives of the strategic development of the Russian economy. Accordingly, there is an asymmetry in the proportion of social and economic development of the oil and gas regions and regions of non-raw and non-oil and gas specialization.
The course of the implementation of non-raw development model assumes accelerated development of productions with high added value that can potentially become points of economic growth, providing the substitution of imported high-tech products. To implement the idea of establishing the economic framework as a structural bases for the development of the territory within the policy documents and strategies of socio-economic regional development have been established indicators of the planned development of the economy and quality of life. Achieving these objectives has led to the need to allocate in the regions structure and backbone enterprises (cores, nodes), which will ensure the formation of economic framework of non-resource development of the region. For example, in the Rostov region as such factories were defined companies in all industries: heavy and light industry, agriculture and processing, wholesale and retail trade, livelihoods, transport, communications, electronics, including industrial manufacture federal significance: Quantum, Rostselmash, Rostvertol, NEVZ .
Considering that the main task of the economic framework is to form the basis for the implementation of the reproductive processes in the region for stimulating the processes of self-development of regional socio-economic systems, we should take into account that such a framework should include not only the elements that make up the reproductive cycle, but also those that provide the functioning and purposeful development of the given circuit.
It is about the need to simultaneous resolution of questions of spatial planning: building of trade companies, cultural objects, social infrastructure, financial and credit sphere and so on, which forming circuit of a lower order, create the conditions for economic activities. For example, in the Rostov region during the construction of mining enterprises together with the construction of support and service enterprises simultaneously was carried out the housing construction of neighborhoods and social infrastructure.
As fairly marks E. E. Zhulanov, it is impossible to organize the production of industrial products in the regional circuit without social security of the population – work force and businesses. Harmonization of company goals, living conditions and economic activities allows to reduce the outflow of innovative active population, contributes to the balanced development of the processes of modernization, as well as the appearance of the following system features of the generated economic circuit: emergence, multiplicativity, adaptability, reliability, integrity, purposefulness, structuralism, alternativity, communication, interaction and interdependence of systems, interactivity, synergism and hierarchy . Thus, ensuring the implementation of system and forming functions of the economic framework of non-resource development of the region's economy involves the formation of an integrated model of an economic system based on a detailed study of combined functional and hierarchical relationships of its entities.
Taking into account that the economic framework, in the area modern program documents, is considered as a backbone of structure, it is necessary to define the relevant criteria corresponding to such status.
System forming criteria:
- possibility of effective inclusion of new types of economic activities into the structure of the framework ;
- maintenance of the development of innovation diffusion processes in the region, including the peripheral areas;
- the development of integration interaction of different scales and different-business entities, both within the region and at the interregional level;
- formation of the internal mechanisms for self-organization and self-development of the regional economy.
Structure forming criteria
-providing functional stability of the processes of regional development in the context of increasing external threats;
- implementation of targets of industrial, innovation, investment and other regional policies;
- focus on ensuring the completion of reproduction cycles in the region, bringing production chains to produce the final product.
Thus, the basic principles of the development of economic structure and system forming framework can be summarized as follows: providing a coherent, integrated and synchronized application of mechanisms and instruments of resource potential of the territory; the development of regional and interregional integration cooperation in the direction of stimulating economic resources overflow of raw materials in the non-resource sector of the economy; providing connectedness and balanced regional economic development based on the «integration» of the economy of peripheral areas in the emerging new economic framework; creating the conditions for capitalization of the region by improving the level of infrastructure and social amenities of its territory.
Of course, the implementation of these principles will be executed under a specific territorial context under the influence of the dominant regional development. Therefore, for example, the systemic nature of the reproductive integrity of the South Russian economy strongly depends on the level of development in the region-integrated structures in strategic importance for national security areas, providing: the growth of intellectual rent, since it is non-commodity manufacturing which leads to an increase in human development, creating demand for skilled creative staff, the conditions for the emergence and introduction of innovations, the conditions for technological, social and demographic progress, request for improvement of the human environment; growth of innovative revenues and value-added cost in high-tech industries; increasing the level of the commercialization of domestic scientific research, the results of research by reducing the proportion of equipment and technologies purchased abroad; domestic business investment inflow into the Russian economy .
Thus particularly urgent is becoming provision not only the interaction of individual subjects of the regional economy, but such incorporation of these interactions in its structure, which will allow the development of systemic modernization reforms. Thus, the economic framework of the territory, carrying out its structure – and system forming functions, is presented as a kind of economic integrator, bringing together economic operators of the material and non-material sphere, infrastructure facilities, economic institutions, as well as existing between them various socio-economic, industrial and technological cooperation, and ensuring the implementation of the competitive advantages of the region. The economic framework should include not only industrial enterprises, but also objectively integrated to them infrastructure, intangible objects and other regional entities, as well as economic institutions. Moreover, part of the formed infrastructure should provide not only intra-regional functions, but also ensure the implementation of inter-regional interactions.
Implementation of non-commodity model of economic development of South Russia involves the development and implementation of new instruments and mechanisms of modernization, which should be directed not to carry out reforms of the compensatory nature of coping with the economic contradictions between the individual structures, and the organization of economic space as a multi-level (according to the type of orders) system based on the principles of complementarity and cooperation of potential of these orders and their goal orientation for the realization of modernization projects in the region. The main objective of this policy is to maximize enhance the region's ability to backward-ups to develop new technology, expand the technological capabilities of their traditional areas economic activities with the further diffusion of technologies and development in the related industries, promote the formation of companies with a high level of capitalization, forming a stable frame of non-resource development throughout the region.
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