A. N. Sanakulov, Senior teacher,
Tashkent University of Information
Technologies named after Muhammad Al-Khwarizmi,
Currently, maintenance of information security is one of the priorities of many states. The process of informatization is an integral part of the modern information society, and the issue of the information security of the society is an urgent and vital issue for any state. Information was once a simple message that had to be brought from one person to another, and then to society, and this was done in different ways. As time goes by, it became so powerful that became a means of struggle for the interests and minds of thousands people, Various methods, sometimes even forceful and bloody methods, are used by them to achieve their goals. Therefore, in the modern period, countries and peoples are striving to protect themselves from any kinds of negative information and its possible consequences. In such a situation, the need to select and use information for their own purposes, as well as its dissemination to further develop the spirituality of the people, becomes relevant. Modern researchers define information security in different ways. For example, the Russian scientist L.I. Shershnev believes that “information security is the ability of the state, society, social group, personality to provide with a certain probability sufficient and protected information resources and information flows to maintain life activities, sustainable functioning and development, counter informational hazards and threats, negative information impacts on individual and public consciousness and psyche of people, as well as on computer networks and other technical sources of information, develop personal and group skills and abilities of safe behavior, to maintain constant readiness for adequate measures in the information confrontation, whoever it is imposed on ”[1, p. 49–50].
The older Soviet generation remembers that at that time the society was closed and access to objective information was controlled within the framework of the dominant ideology. Strict censorship by the government and filtering information was one of the tactics conducted by the state. This was done to keep people in check and distribute only targeted information. By this, the system “protected” itself and its citizens from the penetration of alien ideas and values. Until that time, these methods of information security were bearing fruit, but globalization, blurring of borders in the information space, and a sharp increase in the diversity of information raised the awareness of people. One of the reasons for the collapse of the Union, as already noted by many scientists of the world, was precisely the scant information of people, the so-called information hunger. The Soviet people needed information flows, but alas it wasn’t: in many cases the people learned about events in their country through foreign information resources.
After gaining independence by the CIS countries, including Uzbekistan, the problem of providing people with information became the first to give people the opportunity to talk and write about their problems in the open. The totalitarianism of the former Soviet system forced people not to think, but to follow obediently the ideology that was preached by the party. In the first period of independence many people were not able to solve global issues, perceive objective information, analyze it and find out how safe and loyal it was, as they were educated by this method, It was a consequence of using mostly “filtered” information by the population in Soviet times.
As a result, an ideological vacuum arose in the society, and foreign destructive ideologues sought to use this vacuum to fulfill their selfish goals, spreading alien values and concepts, introducing them to the peoples of Central Asia. To a certain extent, in the first years of independence, a certain part of the population, including the younger generation, believed this information, without thinking about what was behind it.
Today, the world around us has been radically changed with its telecommunications computing systems, innovative technologies. If before it was possible to “plug” specific information channels, today all the surrounding space has collapsed informationally. The time for informational interaction between the most rural places has decreased dramatically. As a result, the problem of protecting information that was not previously relevant as never before turned upside down, and now it stands as a vital problem - like protecting human spirituality from harm and harmful information. Today information security is understood as the responsibility for disseminating truthful information and protection, protecting the mind and worldview of young people from harmful information. Therefore, the information threat is nothing short of the explicit and hidden targeted informational effects of systems on each other in order to obtain a certain gain in the material sphere. Study of the problem of information threat in recent years proves that the flow of destructive ideas and information in the world is growing, especially destroying the spirituality of people and especially the youth. The people of the Republic of Uzbekistan reached independence thanks to their devotion to the spiritual values of their ancestors, and preserving it both mostly in hidden, sometimes in an open way.
The free information space and the processes of globalization brought to us negative factors together with the positive ones, affecting the spiritual world of our people. Now information is spread around the world openly, but there is little reliability in it, in many cases it is of a misinformation nature that protects the interests of destructive forces and groups. Therefore, the CIS countries, as well as the Republic of Uzbekistan, have also taken appropriate measures to protect not only the information space, but also the information itself and its recipients, from information threats and aggression.
Thus, Uzbekistan adopted the Law "On Informatization" in 2003, and "On the Principles and Guarantees of Freedom of Information" in 2002. For example, the law “On informatization” of the organization dedicated to the protection of information resources and information systems states that information resources and information systems are subject to protection, improper handling of which may harm their proprietors, owners or other legal entities and individuals. State bodies, legal entities and individuals are obliged to ensure the protection of information resources and information systems containing information about state secrets and confidential information. Article 1 of the Law “On Principles and Guarantees of Freedom of Information” notes that the main tasks of this Law are to protect information – measures to prevent threats to information security and eliminate their consequences; information security – the state of protection of the interests of the individual, society and the state in the information sphere.
In addition, the Republican Commission for the Coordination and Implementation of the Comprehensive Development Program of the National Information and Communication System for 2013–2020 is functioning in the republic, in which aspects of information security in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan are developed. This program maintains all information security measures.
It is necessary to speak avowedly about the ways and methods of informational threat today because, first, understanding one or another method of informational threat allows to transfer it from the category of hidden threats to explicit ones that can be dealt with, and, secondly, the fact that there is a theory information threats should warn a potential victim from the idealistic naive perception of both the external and their own inner world. Today we know that information plays a decisive role in shaping the world outlook of young people and based on this, the course “National Idea: Basic Concepts and Principles” was introduced in 2001 with the initiative of the first President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov.
The principles of the national idea are mainly based on spiritual values, national identity, mentality of our people, which are dominated by creative ideas, such as the prosperity of the Motherland, peace and tranquility of the country, the welfare of the people, ethnic harmony, religious tolerance, social solidarity and the formation of a harmoniously developed personality. They reflect the commonality, connection and conditionality of the concepts of a national idea with various spheres of public life, the spiritual foundations of the Uzbek people, their national and cultural heritage, customs, traditions, values, language, culture, history and philosophy. That is why our people survived all the totalitarianism and lawlessness, which were caused in relation not only to the Uzbek people, but also to all the peoples of the former Soviet Union.
Intellectual violence, information war, is going on all over the world, which is directly aimed at the younger generation, the youth, its weakened outlook, which does not have firm convictions and views on what is happening in the world, the younger generation is under pressure from the media, which is partially or completely disorient a person, does not allow to adequately reflect, specifically reflecting what is happening, and thereby destructively influences the spiritual sphere of modern society, provoking the phenomenon of consumer attitudes towards the people and the state around them, creating conditions for conflicts, military-political crises. Such a specific anamnesis confuses a person in a social space, allows citizens to be brainwashed, manipulate public consciousness, erodes value guides, creates fear, causing devaluation of generally accepted values, state attitudes and generating conflicts, which especially actualizes the spiritual security of modern society.
Spiritual security today has become as an independent sphere of social being, generated by the results of globalization, organically woven into the structure of social relations. Spiritual security, which is subject to preservation, should focus on finding out the specific sources of various kinds of hazards, threats, on specifying the significant structural elements of a sociocultural system that ensures self-preservation, progressive development in the changing conditions of social relations. In this regard, much is being done in the republic. The introduction of modern information and communication systems to the field of state and public administration is an important condition for the effective implementation of ongoing socio-economic and socio-political reforms and transformations in the country.
The information space has been expanded drastically; people’s reception offices for citizens have been appeared for the first time, all citizens, regardless of their nationality or gender, can directly contact the President’s office through a virtual network. Hundreds and thousands of complaints have already positively found their solution, and weekly leaders of all ranks began to report about their deeds to the population and higher standing bodies. All these activities began to increase the trust and awareness of the people to the state bodies, the government. When a mechanism works that is aimed at a direct dialogue with the people, any informational threat and aggression immediately loses its significance and urgency. People become vigilant and quick-witted in receiving information thanks to the taken measures.
The Russian researcher A. V. Voropaeva on the issue of spiritual security wrote that the state that “directs young people, primarily on material values, on enrichment, which is a platform for the emergence of corruption, xenophobia, criminality, aggression, extremism has no future , ... ” And our spiritual values are guided and based on our national values and on the principles of the national idea.
Thus, the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On State Youth Policy” adopted in 2016 stipulates that educating young people in the spirit of patriotism, citizenship, tolerance, respect for laws, national and universal values, able to withstand harmful influences and trends, with strong convictions and views for life; protection of youth from actions leading to the erosion of moral principles, ideas of terrorism and religious extremism, separatism, fundamentalism, the cult of violence and cruelty; raising the level of legal awareness and legal culture of youth  are important aspects in the education of harmoniously developed, resistant to manifestations of alien, reactionary, anti-human ideas.
1. Shershnev L. I. Information Security of Russia // Security: inform. Sat 1993. No. 11–12. – Pp. 49–50.
2. The Law «On State Youth Policy» of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated August 24, 2016 http://lex.uz/docs/3026246