Научно-методический и теоретический журнал
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Искусствоведение История Культурология Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Филология Философия Экономика
Nguyen Thi Phuong
PhD student, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics,
Mass mobilization is the abbreviation of the mobilization of the masses associated with the subjects of mobilization, which are specific organizations or individuals. Mass mobilization is the concept of mobilizing the people to participate in the revolution. Mass mobilization includes public communication, advocacy, persuasion, guidance to the organization of the people to make them understand, agree, and enthusiastically participate in the implementation of revolutionary policies, guidelines and tasks of the Party. Mass mobilization is the work of the entire political system under the leadership of the Party to mobilize and unite the people, to bring the Party's guidlines, policies, and laws into life, contribute to building social consensus and successfully implementing the Party's revolutionary line.
Mass mobilization ideology is a great ideology, an outstanding feature with important significance on the revolutionary path of President Ho Chi Minh. The President put mass mobilization and mass mobilization work at the strategic task level, as a national policy; at the same time focused on methods of implementation in a very practical, specific, thoughtful and meticulous manner. Mass mobilization ideology continued throughout the life of President’s revolutionary activities. On October 15th, 1949, under with the pen name X.Y.Z, He wrote the article "Mass Mobilization", which was published on The Truth Newspaper, No. 120. During which time, there were new changes requiring the mass mobilization work of the Party to go in-depth, be specific and practical to maximize the mobilization of human and wealth power for the resistance. This was the “declaration”, the “platform”, the “guideline” of the Party's mass mobilization for us to learn, grasp and implement.
1. Ho Chi Minh's ideology on mass mobilization
Firstly, what is mass mobilization?
In the article “Mass Mobilization”, President Ho Chi Minh explained very clearly the concept of mass mobilization. According to him, “Mass mobilization is to mobilize every capability of each person without leaving any one behind, to create the all-people force in order to execute the work that should be done or was entrusted by the Government and the Unions” [7, p. 232]. Thus, mass mobilization is to mobilize every capability of each person without leaving any one behind. The mass mobilization work is to approach every person, arouse and promote their positivity, creativity, initiative and self-awareness in general career, which are reflected in the intelligence, energy and wealth of each person. Mass mobilization is not simply general education and encouragement, mass mobilization must clearly understand the capabilities, requirements, aspirations and specific circumstances of each person in order to be effective. That is the depth of mass mobilization. However, not a single person is left behind. This is the breadth of the mass mobilization and is a high requirement of mass mobilization work, thus contributing to the entire population force.
According to President Ho Chi Minh, solidarity is not only a fundamental task of mass mobilization but also a valuable tradition and great lesson of Vietnamese revolution. Solidarity is understood in the broadest way as the unity of the whole Party, the unity of the people and international solidarity for mutual progress and development. On the contrary, He also required the Party and Government to take responsibility to the people. “It is the policy of the Party and the Government to take great care of the lives of the people”. He pointed out: “If the people are hungry, the Party and Government are at fault; if the people are cold, the Party and the Government are at fault; if the people are ignorant, the Party and the Government are at fault and if the people are sick, the Party and the Government are at fault” [9, p. 518].
Secondly, who is in charge of the mass mobilization work?
Ho Chi Minh affirmed: “All governmental officials, Party members and members of people's organizations (Lien Viet, Viet Minh...) must be in charge of mass mobilization work” [6, p. 233]. It could be said that the force performing the mass mobilization work is not only the assigned officials but also all participating government organizations, the Party and unions. Reality shows that if the people are not enlightened, organized and led, they will not know what they do, which way they should follow, as a result, the force of the people though is large but not powerful. Therefore, there must be mass mobilization work. It is the work of the Party, State and mass organizations, or in other words, it is the responsibility of the whole political system. It is general power of revolutionary movements in general, of specific fronts and fields in particular, including the field of mobilization. Mass mobilization work is to actualize the general goal of the revolution. Therefore, all levels of government, unions, cadres, party members, and officials of the political system must be in charge of mobilization work. Depending on the functions and duties of each organization, there should be specific content of mass mobilization work. During the implementation process, it is necessary to raise the sense of responsibility, be proactive and creative in order to take measures to mobilize the masses appropriately, practically and effectively.
Thirdly, what is the subject of the mass mobilization work?
The subject of the mass mobilization work in President Ho Chi Minh's conception is the people with a very broad connotation - both the gathering of a large block of people, and each specific Vietnamese person. According to Ho Chi Minh, the people are “all the people of Vietnam”, “the offspring of the Dragon and Fairy”, irrespective of religion, ethnicity, age and gender. Therefore, the subject of mass mobilization work is the people.
Talking about the people, President Ho Chi Minh often refers to the people in a country, whether living in the country or abroad. That community block is not only a multi-ethnic community but it also is multi-religional, with religious and non-religious people. People should respect and trust one another to unite and help with love like a family – that is the delicate depth of morality and humanity in Ho Chi Minh's thought, and it also is the largest coverage of the mass mobilization work.
Fourthly, how to mobilize the masses?
Regarding the method of mass mobilization, President Ho Chi Minh pointed out: “How to mobilize the masses?” for us to follow: “Cadres in charge of mass mobilization work must be mind-thinking, eyes-observing, ears-listening, feet-walking, mouth-saying, hands-doing. Not just saying without doing, not only giving orders” [7, p. 233–234]. These six criteria are both requirements for officials in charge of mobilization, as well as the methods to mobilize effectively. The contingent of officials in charge of mobilization includes cadres of the Party, government, and unions and in current period, are all cadres in the political system. In order to well-perform the mass mobilization work, the cadres must be knowledgeable, concern with their work, must be far-seeing, be close to the root to grasp the people's feelings and legitimate aspirations, mouth-saying, hand-doing, exemplary in both words and deeds. Mass mobilization officials must grasp information promptly, listen and absorb people's opinions. They must be mouth-saying, hand-doing; must stick closely and directly approach the people, must not be bureaucratic and bossy.
During his lifetime, The President always instructed that a real leader must do his best to preserve and set an example for everyone, to be a “faithful servant” of the people. With a keen interest in the Party's mass mobilization work, He warned those who neglected this important task: “The big shortcoming in many places is underestimating the mass mobilization work, leaving the whole mass mobilization work to a certain division or several cadres, usually the incompetent ones, do not care whether the masses are mobilized or not. The other cadres do not care, assist and take responsibility for mass mobilization” [7, p. 234] and He criticized very strictly: “It is a very serious and harmful mistake” [7, p. 234].
In consequence, President Ho Chi Minh not only recognized the strategic and long-term importance of the mass mobilization in the Vietnamese revolution, but also paid special attention to its purpose, motto and methods. He demanded and acted by himself exemplary to set an example for cadres, party members and civil servants in their dedication to serving the people, sacrificing and striving for the people. Learning Ho Chi Minh's ideology and methods on mass mobilization in the current period requires each official and party member to re-illuminate themselves, better implement the motto of respecting the people, being close to the people and responsible for the people. By doing so, it is certain to overcome any hardship and challenge, as He once affirmed: “The masses hold enormous power. The mass mobilization is of great importance. Ineffective mass mobilization leads to poor performance in everything. Effective mass mobilization leads to success in everything” [7, p. 234].
2. The application of Ho Chi Minh’s Thought on mass mobilization work of The Communist Party of Vietnam
Inheriting and applying creatively the ideology of mass mobilization of President Ho Chi Minh, over the past years, along with the comprehensive renovation of the country, our Party has always expressed concern and has issued many resolutions to concretize the policies towards the mass mobilization work, renewing the contents and methods of mobilizing the masses.
When reviewing the process of leading the revolutionary cause and deciding the comprehensive renovation guideline of the country, the first major lesson emphasized by our Party was the lesson on thoroughly grasping the thought of “Taking people as the root”, building and promoting the people's right to mastery, taking care of and strengthening the close relationship between the Party and the people, and building the people's trust in the Party. Our Party affirmed: “In terms of leading the government, the Party attaches special importance to reforming the Party's mass mobilization work from the point of view: revolution is the cause of the people, by the people and for the people; the Party's strength lies in its close attachment to the people” .
In the context of the early years of renovation, under difficult economic conditions due to seige and embargo, people's trust was affected by the crisis leading to the disintegration of the socialist system in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe; On March 27, 1990, The 8th plenary session of the 6th Central Committee issued Resolution No. 8B-NQ/HNTW on renewing the Party's public affairs, strengthening the relationship between Party with the people. This is a timely step to rectify the decline in the relationship between the Party and the people, rectifying the situation that a part of cadres and party members are bureaucratic, dictatorial, keeping aloof from the people, autocratic, authoritative, embezzling, bribery, living extravagantly, dissipative, reducing the enthusiasm for the revolution, limiting the promotion of the people's great potential in the cause of national construction.
At the 7th National Congress, our Party determined to build a mechanism to implement the motto “People know, people discuss, people do, people check” for the policies and guidelines of the Party and Government. The Platform on national construction in the period of transition to socialism (1991) affirmed: “All activities of the Party must come from the legitimate interests and aspirations of the people. The Party's strength lies in its close attachment to the people” . In particular, in 1999, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of President Ho Chi Minh's writing the article "Mass Mobilization", the Politburo decided to make October 15 every year as the Mass Mobilization Day.
Facing with requirements and tasks of mass mobilization in the period of industrialization and modernization of the country, on March 12, 2003, at the Seventh plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of National Party Congress, the Party issued Resolution No. 23-NQ/TW on promoting the strength of great national solidarity for rich people, strong country, fair society, democracy and civilization. Resolution No. 23-NQ/TW concretized the views and ideology of the Ninth Congress of the Party on promoting the strength of great national solidarity with new content and quality, directing the mass mobilization work in the new era.
On February 25, 2010, the Politburo issued Decision No. 290-QD/TW on promulgating the Regulation on mass mobilization of the political system, which affirmed that: mass mobilization and its work is a strategic mission of the entire revolutionary cause of our country; an important condition to ensure the leadership of the Party, to consolidate and strengthen blood relations between the Party, the State and the people; at the same time, it clearly defines the responsibility of leading and implementing the mass mobilization work of the Party committees, authorities, the Fatherland Front and mass organizations, all officials, party members, union members; the coordination mechanism among agencies and organizations in the implementation of the mobilization work. It can be said that this was the Party's first institutional document on the regime of responsibility for leading, directing and implementing the mobilization work in our political system.
In particular, on June 3, 2013, the Central Executive Committee issued Resolution No. 25-NQ/TW on strengthening and renewing the Party's leadership in the mobilization work in the new situation. On the basis of a comprehensive review of the situation, to clarify challenges to the mobilization work in the context of promoting the renovation cause, to strengthen and renew the Party's leadership in civil mobilization work. In the new model, it is necessary to grasp the following views: 1) Revolution is the cause of the people, by the people, for the people; owned by the people; 2) The driving force for the people's movement is to promote the people's right to mastery, and meet the people's practical interests; harmonious combination of benefits; rights must go hand in hand with citizen obligations; focusing on direct benefits of the people; mobilizing the people's forces must go hand in hand with fostering the people's strength; cadres must try their best to bring benefits and avoid doing harmful things to the people 3) The Party's mass mobilization work must be closely associated with the work of building a clean and strong Party and State. All views and guidelines of the Party and laws of the State must be in accordance with the interests of the people, by the people and for the people. Each cadre, party member, public servant and official must be exemplary for the people to believe and follow; 4) The mass mobilization work is the responsibility of the entire political system, cadres, party members, public servants, officials, union members, members of people's unions, cadres and soldiers of the armed forces. In which, the Party leads, the authorities organize the implementation, the Vietnam Fatherland Front, the socio-political organizations act as advisors and the core 5) The State continues to institutionalize the mechanism of “Party's leadership, State's management and people's mastery” into a regulation and policies so that organizations in the political system, officials, Party members, civil servants, officials and officers and soldiers of the armed forces perform better mass mobilization work; people gathering forms must be abundant, diversified, scientific and effective.
At the 12th National Congress of the Party, one of the important tasks in Party building was identified by our Party as “Continuing to renovate and improve the efficiency of mass mobilization work, strengthening the close relationship between Party with the people” [1, p. 210]. In order to concretize the Resolution of the 12th National Congress of the Party, the Politburo, the Secretariat issued many resolutions and directives on and related to the mass mobilization work such as: Directive No. 49-CT/TW on October 20, 2015 on strengthening and renewing the Party's mobilization work in ethnic minority areas; Directive No.16/CT-TTg dated May 16, 2016 of the Prime Minister on strengthening and renewing the mobilization work in state administrative agencies and governments at all levels in a new situation; Conclusion No. 43-KL/TW dated January 7, 2019 of the Central Committee on continuing to implement the Resolution No.25-NQ/TW dated June 3, 2013 of the Central Committee on strengthening and renewing the Party's leadership over mass mobilization in the new situation...
Over the past 30 years, since the reform of the country was carried out, under the leadership of the Party, the mass mobilization work has achieved many remarkable results, contributing to strengthening the close relationship between the Party and the people, building a firm “posture of the people’s hearts”. The contents of the mass mobilization work are associated with the local political tasks, units and local characteristics; carried out with focus and diversified form suitable to practical requirements. The Party Committee, authorities, the Fatherland Front and socio-political organizations have actively promoted propaganda and mobilized the people to well implement the Party's lines and guidelines, the policies and laws of the State, local socio-economic development plans and programs. The organization, apparatus and civil servants of the political system from the central to local levels have been increasingly strengthened in quantity and improved in quality, gradually meeting the requirements and tasks in new situation.
On the other hand, a number of party committees, authorities, agencies, departments and organs are not fully aware of the position and role of the mass mobilization work, so they have not yet paid attention to implementing movements emulate in this activity. The implementation of documents related to the mobilization work is still slow, the documents have not been concretized to be suitable to the actual situation of each locality and unit. The coordination and combination among departments, organs and unions is not really tight. Some cadres and party members are bureaucratic, bossy, embezzling, bribery, detach themselves from the people, appear indifferent to the opinions and recommendations of the people, degradate in ideology, morality, lifestyle, deplete trust of the people towards the Party and State; lack of skills to propagandize and persuade the people...
The cause of the above limitations is that some levels of party committees and authorities have not yet led, directed and well implemented the mobilization work. Some cadres in charge of mass mobilization work are still limited in terms of qualifications, capacity, professional expertise, they are not proactive in advising, researching the implementation of documents on mobilization work. Mechanisms, policies and working conditions of a number of agencies and cadres in charge of mobilization work still face many difficulties. The coordination in implementing the mobilization work of organizations in the political system is not yet tight. The Fatherland Front and grassroots socio-political organizations have not had any reforms in terms of content and operation method.
3. Solutions to continue applying Ho Chi Minh's Thoughts on mass mobilization work of the Vietnamese Communist Party in the coming time
Firstly, raising awareness of the Party's mass mobilization work in the new era. Strengthening the thorough grasp and implementation of directives, resolutions and regulations on mobilization to raise awareness and responsibility of the Party committees, authorities and organizations in the political system with mass mobilization work. Promoting communication and using the mass media, social networks effectively... Renovating the mass mobilization work in a practical and creative way; aiming to reach consensus, strengthening the people's trust towards the Party and the State, promoting the great strength of the great unity bloc of the entire nation. Clearly defining that mass mobilization work is the responsibility of the entire political system. Well implementing the leadership mechanism of the mobilization work: the Party leads, the authorities organize the implementation, the Vietnam Fatherland Front, the socio-political organizations act as advisors and the core. At the same time, focusing on investing in the research activities to review the practice, and theoretically answer newly emerging problems, especially issues related to the interests of the people, complaints and petitions of the people.
Secondly, continuing to promote the emulation movement “Effective mass mobilization” associated with patriotic emulation movements and campaigns launched by the Fatherland Front and socio-political organizations. In particular, it is necessary to determine the central content and method of the emulation movement to work out the appropriate one; associate it with promoting learning and emulating Ho Chi Minh's thought, morality and lifestyle. Through practical activities, all levels and organs need to do well the propaganda, encourage and replicate new, typical and advanced factors, the example of “good people, good deeds” in all fields; promote the spirit of patriotism, practice democracy, create a sweeping revolutionary action movement of the entire people to successfully implement the national renewal and development. Strengthening the mass mobilization work of the political system to the grassroots, with the focus on the mass mobilization of the government.
Thirdly, renewing methods of mass mobilization suitable for each specific subject. Propaganda and persuasion must be used as main methods of mass mobilization. Propaganda and persuasion must be reasonable, lawful, conduct self-criticism, have a good attitude and dialogue with officials and ethnic minorities; preventing and combating the “big nation” ideology; preventing and combating the thought of “narrow nationalism”, overcoming national inferiority complex. At the same time, it is necessary to improve the economic life of the people and implement the transparent public administration when mobilizing the masses. The cadres has to discuss everything with the people, ask for people's opinion and experience, and collaborate with people to work out plans suitable to local circumstances, then encourage and organize implementation process, as President Ho Chi Minh instructed: “The leadership in all practical activities of the Party must come from the masses and get back to the masses” [6, p. 330].
Fourthly, the Fatherland Front and socio-political organizations continue to renew their contents and methods of operation, well-perform the role of representatives and protect the legitimate and rightful interests of their members; diversify forms of gathering force, grassroots-oriented, grassroots concentration. Continuing to renovate and improve the quality and efficiency of mobilizing union members and masses to effectively implement the Party's guildlines, State policies and laws, creating a broad revolutionary movement among the people in the cause of national construction and defence. It is necessary to perfect the mechanism to improve the effectiveness of social supervision and criticism of the people through the Fatherland Front and socio-political organizations. Paying attention to selecting, training, fostering and having mechanisms and policies to motivate the contingent of officials engaged in the work of the front, mass mobilization and mass organizations; resolutely not to appoint cadres lacking of capabilities, having poor morality, violating discipline to conduct mass mobilization work.
Fifthly, promoting the role and ownership of the people in the mass mobilization work with the spirit of “taking people as the root”. Democracy is the core value of society, it is cultural, historical and epochal and is the driving force of development. In fact, promoting the people's mastery is based on the fundamental principle of “power belongs to the people” that President Ho Chi Minh had repeatedly affirmed. In the current period, it is necessary to continue to institutionalize, improve quality and promote forms of representative democracy and direct democracy; well-implement the Regulation on democracy in various types of grassroots. Eliminating the problems of bureaucracy, being remote from the people, not having firm grip on practice. Strengthening dialogues, interacting with the people; sticking to the grassroots, listening to the people's innermost feelings and desires; promptly fulfilling and satisfying the legitimate and rightful aspirations of the people. Promptly and completely handling pressing issues directly related to the people's lives such as crowded, leveled up and protracted lawsuits, avoiding to form and spread “hot spots” relating to security and social order.
Sixthly, strengthening the mass mobilization apparatus and building mass mobilization contingent of officials at all levels to meet the requirements and tasks in a streamlined way, ensuring sufficient parts suitable for specialized functions and tasks. Formulating and concretizing standards and styles of mass mobilization officiers. It is necessary to clearly define the standards of mass mobilization officiers in general and grassroots mobilization cadres in particular to meet the general standards in the cadre strategy in the period of national industrialization and modernization. Paying attention to building resources for planning, recruiting, fostering and employing qualified, capable and experienced staff with mass mobilization skills, exemplary, prestige to introduce and assign in charge of mass mobilization. At the same time, it is necessary to have policies to attract mass mobilization officiers such as salary allowances, living expenses, public housing regime; funding for specific mass mobilization tasks... so that the officiers in charge of mobilization can be assured of their work and successfully complete their assigned tasks.
In conclusion, mass mobilization according to President Ho Chi Minh's point of view is to mobilize the people to revolutionize in order to free the people from their chains of slavery, to eliminate oppression, exploitation and enslavement of the people by colonial and feudal empires. In order to succeed, that liberation career must have a force, an organized strength led by a pioneering unit which is the Communist Party. The views of Ho Chi Minh is the ideological and theoretical foundation that has been absorbed and applied by our Party during leading the revolutionary process and is the striving direction of our Party in the current period.
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