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Каталог статей из сборников научных конференций и научных журналов- Courage of Uzbek people in resistance movement

Courage of Uzbek people in resistance movement

M. Sh. Nursaidova junior researcher, Phd student

ORCID 0000-0003-1279-6942,

e-mail: mohinanursaidova@gmail.com,

Phd student at the Coordinational and Methodological Center

of the Contemporary History of Uzbekistan

at the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan,

Tashkent, Uzbekistan

 

During World War II, an anti-fascist guerrilla movement was established, named as the Resistance Movement. The movement spread mainly on two continens including Europe (France, Italy, Greece, Norway, Romania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary) and Asia (China, Vietnam, Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines and Burma).

Among the more than 40,000 citizens who took part in the liberation armies, as well as in the guerrilla structures in France, Norway, Austria, and Germany, the Uzbeks were the majority. For example, in the Yugoslav People's Liberation Army, more than 260 Uzbeks, including U. Xolmaboev, A. Mamajonov, R. Rahimov, H. Jabborov, L. Kolantarov, H. Ismoilov took part actively.

This scientific article aims to highlight the courage of Uzbek guerrillas in resistance movements. We began our article by systematically covering the courage of Uzbek guerrilla fighters in the table.

 


Full name
Year and place of birth
Place of serving
The courage shown
1.
Sayfullo Nurullaev
Samarkand,

1915
He took part in the guerrilla movement on Polish territory.
On June 7, 1944, he was involved in the bombing of 5 military trains on the Lublin-Krasnik railway line, killing 50 of the facsist and wounding 140.
2.
Galim Bulatov
Samarkand
He took part in the guerrilla movement on Polish territory.
He was active in blowing up more than 10 bridges with his squad, destroying areas where enemy military equipment was located. [2, p. 41]
3.
Lev Kalontarov (according to the document Leonid Yusupovich Kolontarov) [3]
Samarkand
He took part in the guerrilla movement in the 9th Corps of the Yugoslav National Liberation Army.
He was awarded Yugoslav awards for bravery in battle [4, p. 142].
4.
Husayn Zohirov
-
He took part in the guerrilla movement in the 9th Corps of the Yugoslav National Liberation Army.
He was awarded Yugoslav awards for bravery in battle [4, p. 142].
5.
G.Gritsenko, K.Mamadaliev

 
Samarkand
Slovenia
Awarded
6.
Y. Rijov
Tashkent
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Not enough information
7.
M. Jalilov
Andijon
Macedonia
Not enough information
8.
K. Danilov, V. Melnikov, R. Allamov, A. Narzullaev, R. Hamroev, A. Urozniyozov
-
They took part in the guerrilla movement in Czechoslovakia.
Not enough information
9.
G. Faxrutdinov F.Sultonbekov. [2, p. 42] S. Shomurodov, R. Ismoilov [5, p. 3]
 
They participated in the liberation of Paris, Limoges, Toulouse, Clermont-Ferrana, Poitiers, Montpellier and other cities
Not enough information
10.
H. Ismoilov
Fergana
In March 1944, They destroyed the guard service of a camp for Soviet prisoners near the city of Alba.
He was awarded medals of France.
A. Ayrapetov
-
H. Jabborov
-
T. Ziyayev
-
 
 
11.
M. Bobojonov [6]
Xorezm, 1923
Belgian resistance movement
Not enough information
12.
A. Krivonosov [7]
Buxara, 1918
Belgian resistance movement
Not enough information
As can be seen from the table above, first of all, in the resistance movements, representatives of various nationalities from Uzbekistan took part in guerrilla activities in many countries.  Secondly, there is a lack of information and documents covering their contribution to the Victory. More precisely, within the framework of this topic, it is still relevant to study a lot of documents and data.

In our scientific article, we present information about news, as well as some information about guerrillas, collected during the research. It should be noted that the Italian partisan squads were also composed of people of different nationalities, most of whom were Uzbeks. From the brigade “42-Garibaldi” Tursunboy Maminov, from the brigade “115-Garibaldi” Juma Turdikulov (known as “Juzeppe), U. Odilov, from the brigade “Bazovitsa” Kenjaboy Alparov, Mixail Mirmyans, Vladimir Greev, Stepan Opanatsenko and others fought fiercely.

According to information, more than 50 Uzbeks joined guerrilla units, destroyed 336 fascist soldiers and officers, and blew up 13 vehicles and about 15 enemy firing points. [9] Among them, Ahmad Mamajonov from Andijan showed special courage. Information about the brave guerrilla became known only in recent years. Mamajonov was a member of the “Garibaldi” brigade called Luchetti and Gino Menconi. Given that the first letters of Mamajonov's name were "M ..." and "A ...", the guerrillas called him Mikhail Alessandro, in short, "Sandro." In 1945, he was awarded the "Patriot" Certificate for his heroism. What was written in the certificate is "On behalf of our people and state, we thank Michael Alexandro for his courage." [10] In 2019, in Italy, the activities of Ahmadjon Mamajonov were widely covered in the book “By the order of the heart. The Apuan Resistance Movement and the Story of Soviet Partisans ” (Marta Tongiani) [12, p.320]

Of course, it must be acknowledged that a number of scientists have worked on this topic. S. Genov, the director of the Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship Museum told stories about Stoycho Gichev, the political commissar of the Bulgarian guerrilla battalion. He said: “After the battle near Prepole, our battalion retreated to the mountains, towards the city of Prepomer.  Along the way, 28 red army soldiers including Uzbeks, who took an active part in the battles, joined us. They had been captured in the heroic battles of the Red Army around Kursk and Kiev. In early 1944, the fascists took them to Yugoslavia. Here, the brave Red Army made contact with the local people, found out which areas had guerrillas, and made a plan to cross over to them. Taking advantage of the opportunity, they killed Hitler's soldiers, loaded their horses with weapons, and marched towards the Yugoslav partisans. It was these red soldiers who were later sent to our battalion. Each of them was a disciplined soldier. In battles, they behaved themselves as if they did not fear. They amazed everyone with their courage. In particular, they set a special example in the battles near Prepole” [2, p. 42]. The story shows that Uzbeks took part in the resistance movement in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia.

Another participant in the resistance movement was Andrey Borzenko from Tashkent, the boxing champion of the Uzbek SSR in 1938–1939. He was sent into captivity to the Buchenwald concentration camp. There he fought a total of 80 times with camp guards and SS boxers. He was never be defeated. He knew that defeat would be his final point – the crematorium [11]. He was a strong partisan in the activities of the secret organization in the camp.

Thus, the Uzbeks made a significant contribution to the liberation of the peoples of the ancient continent from fascism. Uzbek soldiers were awarded orders and medals of foreign countries. Uzbek fighters, who made a significant contribution to the liberation of Eastern Europe from fascism, also took an active part in the resistance movement in European countries. 2430 Uzbek fighters were awarded the medal "For the Liberation of Budapest" [12, p. 92]. Uzbeks who escaped from captivity in 1941–1943 joined the Resistance Movement in the Fascist-occupied European countries and fought valiantly in Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Greece, Italy, Norway, Romania, France, and Czechoslovakia. [12, p. 93] By the fall of 1944, the borders of the USSR had been completely cleared of the enemy, and Soviet troops entered European countries as a rescue force. Among them, our compatriots also contributed to the liberation of Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Austria [13]. 

Based on the above, it can be concluded that in the renewed Uzbekistan, which pays attention to the culture of historical memory, the scientific study of the activities of Uzbeks participating in the Resistance Movement is becoming more relevant. It is important to study the documents that cover the courage associated with the name of each of them, to seal their courage in history, to preserve it for future generations through concrete examples. To do this, the establishment of separate research centers to study the resistance movement, the establishment of cooperation between these centers with foreign countries, systematic study of archives, along with foreign sources and literature, as well as materials from the recently opened Museum of Glory and the families of members of the Resistance Movement would be expedient.  

Bibliogrpahy

  1. Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. PQ-4495 on the worthy celebration of the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Second World War 23.10.2019. //https://lex.uz/docs/4664439
  2. Bakman Y. I. Warriors of Uzbekistan - Participants of the Resistance Movement in European Countries // Social Sciences in Uzbekistan. – Tashkent, 1973. – No. 5. – S. 41–42.
  3. Juraev T. D. The Uzbeks are participants in the partisan war. – T.: Uzbekistan, 1975. – P. 142.
  4. TsAMO. F. 58. Op. 18004. D. 38. L. 362. – Born in 1919 year, he was executed 25 November 1943 year.
  5. Days in France // "Red Uzbekistan" newspaper, March 30, 1960, p.3.
  6. http://forum.patriotcenter.ru/index.php?topic=39328.0;wap2
  7. http://forum.patriotcenter.ru/index.php?topic=39328.0;wap2
  8. Talalay M. G. Russian participants in the Italian War of 1943–1945: partisans, Cossacks, legionnaires. – M. : LLC "Staraya Basmannaya", 2015. – P. 279.
  9. Polonsky Ilya. Soviet heroes liberated the "eternal city". The Roman underground. June 29, 2015 //https://www.liveinternet.ru./21.12.2020.
  10. Greetings from sunny Uzbekistan. (Interview with Ravshan Mamazhanov and memoirs from the family archive of A. Mamazhonov. 21.09.2015.
  11. http://www.pobeda1945.su/frontovik/115196 /21.12.2020
  12. Saidolimov S., Raximov M., Sagdullaev К., Nazarov R., Babadjanov X. The contribution of the Uzbek people to the victory over fascism. Responsible for publication – Sultonov. Book album. – Tashkent: "Uzbekistan". 2020. – P. 92–93.
  13. Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. PQ-4495 on the worthy celebration of the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Second World War.
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