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Каталог статей из сборников научных конференций и научных журналов- Jadidism and lexicography of the period

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01.08-31.10.2020

Jadidism and lexicography of the period

S. E. Normamatov Doctor of philological science, vice-rector,

e-mail: sultan@mail.ru,

Tashkent State University of Uzbek language and literature,

Tashkent, Uzbekistan
 

Since the establishment of the Uzbek literary language, as well as in the next periods has always been in the focus of scholars, intellectuals, and linguists. As Mahmud Kashgari, the 11th Century, interpreted the richness of Turkic words in Arabic and left the linguistic wealth of our people as a great heritage, this tradition was followed by Mahmud Zamakhshari's “Asas al-Balagha” and “Muqaddimat al-adab” (XII century), Tole Iman Hiravi's “Badoe' ul-lug'at” (XV century), Muhammad Yakub Chingiy’s “Kelurname” (XVII century), “Munturab ul-luqot” (XVIII century) by Muhammad Riza Khoksor, “Sanghloh” (XVIII century) by Mirzo Mehdiyhon, Suleyman Bukhariy's “Lug’ati Chagatay va turki Usmani” (XIX century) and by unknown author “At-tuhfat uz zakiyati f-il-lugati it-turkiya” (XIII century) and “Abushqa” (XVI century), and continued with the creation of unique masterpieces of Turkic lexicography. Some of these dictionaries are one-lingual, multilingual dictionaries of the Turkish literary language in terms of its scope, purpose, and descriptive language, while some are new “dictionary-grammar» examples of lexicography that are based on the need for scientific knowledge.

Up to the Jadid period in the history of the Uzbek lexicography from the second half of the XIX century, can be observed mainly creation of “explanatory dictionaries”, as well as the creation of dictionaries that serves to understand the works of Alisher Navoi and to promote the emerging ancient Uzbek literary language, to introduce its features to the common people. From the second half of the XIX century, unlike the above, it has concerned considerable attention to the emergence of new trends, new approaches to vocabulary arrangement and the creation of new types of dictionaries.

When we talk about the development trends of the Uzbek lexicography in the second half of the XIX century and the first half of the XX century, there is also a need to think about the development of Uzbek lexicography related to the activities of the jaded educators. It is noteworthy that the educators of jadid who occupy a special place in the history of Uzbek literature, history, culture, and spirituality with their diverse in genres have made a great contribution to the linguistic sphere, as well as contributing to the further development of the Uzbek lexicography. We have decided to explain their services in the development of Uzbek dictionary compiling and Uzbek lexicography, as well as the specific characteristic of the period dictionary compiling:

1) The colonial policy of Tsarist Russia, which began in the second half of the XIX century, has led to the need to study the language, culture and ethnography of the local Turkic peoples, and to engage in “investigation” and observation, and this need was the bases for the creation of dictionaries “Russian-Uzbek”, “Uzbek- Russian” which ensures mutual communication. The first of these dictionaries was created by Russian intelligentsia and government officials, including the dictionary of A. Starchevsky's «Perevodchik russkogo yazyka na sartovskiy» (1878), S. Lapin's «Russko-Uzbek slovar» (1984), V. Palivkin M. Nalivkina's dictionaries, such as Russko-sartovskiy i sartovsko-russkiy slovar” (1884–1912), can be found.

In order to promote the revolution and in the period of hesitation (initial period) of the development of the country and to reestablish the entire industry, to climb to the world community in every field, as well as with the aim of raising the level of consciousness, knowledge, and spirituality of the population, and learning Russian, providing free communication with them Jadid intelligentsia work on bilingual translation dictionaries of "Russian-Uzbek" or "Uzbek-Russian". This work was originally initiated by Ashurali Zahiri who was the leading intellectual in his time, creating his “Complete Russian-Uzbek dictionary” [1], and later Abdulla Kadyri continued this action with his “Russian-Uzbek full dictionary” [9] in co-authorship. By comparing these dictionaries with the translation dictionaries created by the lexicography of Russian scientists who searched Turkic language, authorities of Russian State system, in compiling dictionaries the authors have been able to enter the national features of the Uzbek language and the lexical and grammatical norms of the new Uzbek literary language, many words and phrases in contrast to others. It is also possible to evaluate the progress of bilingual translation dictionaries in the context of the work of the jaded writers in terms of the amount of spoken word, the level of understanding and the effective use of lexicographical signals of the current bilingual dictionary. This process indicates during this period, bilingual, in particular, the first Russian-Uzbek translation dictionaries was written by the Uzbek intellectuals, as well as it indicates that the Jadid writers have a worthwhile role in the development of bilingual translation dictionaries;

2) “Chagatay talks” by Elbek, who was an active member of the society, has a special place in the lexicography. He created works “Lug‘at va atamalar”, “Uzbekcha shakldosh suzlar lughati” and “Uzbek tula suzligiga materiallar” based on the research of Uzbek language vocabulary in the early XX centuries, on the basis of the development of language. “Uzbekcha shakldosh suzlar lughati” [4] is the first special dictionary in the history of the Uzbek lexicography, which is used to describe the meanings of the homonym words spoken in this period in Uzbek. Also in his work “Uzbek to’la suzligiga materiallar” [3], “Materials for whole Uzbek dictionary” contains information on the achievement similarity in the pronunciation and spelling of words and the orthography of root and morphemes, types of word formation and information about morpheme. The work contains the first theoretical and practical ideas on the creation of the etymological, morphemic dictionaries of the Uzbek language. Thus, the beginning of the creation of special linguistic dictionaries in the history of the Uzbek lexicography, the occurrence of initial ideas on the creation of etymological and morphemic dictionaries is connected with the activity of the jadid writers;

3) Abdurauf Fitrat, a poet and playwright, a novelist and a publicist, a linguist and a literary critic, has been systematically investigating the history of Uzbek literature in his work in the works of “The samples of the Oldest Turkish Literature” [5] and then “The samples Uzbek Literature” (Volume 1) [6]. In the complex of “The samples of the Oldest Turkish Literature” as the scientist searches Mahmud Koshgari's “Devonu lugatit turk” from the linguistic point of view, the author adds a special part “Dictionary” to the work and gives a clear explanation of pure Turkic words.  This dictionary which explained the total 126 pure Turkic words includes the signs of etymological dictionary, the comparative-historical dictionary, the morphemic dictionary, the English-Persian-Arabic dictionary, as well as the definitive dictionary of words, raised high the personality of Fitrat as a lexicographer Jadid writer. In addition, the “Index-dictionary” [7] is the first type of dictionary in the history of Uzbek lexicography created for Devon for the purpose of determining the position of Professor Fitrat's book «Devonu lug'ati-t-turk» as a literary and linguistic source, as a result of scientific research and public discovery at that time. Certainly, Fitrat's lexicographical views, in contrast with the traditions of that time, a new scientific study of the earliest Turkish literary language in a new stage of linguistics;

4) In Turkestan in the second half of the XIX century, under the influence of the development of oriental and Turkic sciences, along with the traditional lexicography dictionaries of Russian-Uzbek and Uzbek-Russian, as well as dictionaries of Uzbek language with other European and foreign Oriental languages began to appear. One of the members of Jadid's leadership, Iskhakhon Ibrat's dictionary “Lughati Sitta alsina” (six languages dictionary) [8], is also included in the content of the new, modern, Western-style traditions. As the linguist A. Madvaliev states that there was no dictionary which covered materials of six languages and comparative translations of those languages was compiled in the up to the and after Ibrat [10, p. 53–56]. Iskhakhon Ibrat before compiling dictionary searched the dictionaries of Turkic language, Arabic, Persian-Tajik, Usman Turk lexicography and, at the same time, Russian lexicography. To be clearly, he has deeply mastered and thoroughly investigated the theoretical and practical issues of language and the Uzbek, Persian-Tajik, Arabic, Turkish and Hindi languages needed to make dictionary.

The “Lughati Sitta al-sina” is a linguistic dictionary and is designed for a wide audience of readers. If we investigate the dictionary according to the purpose and the content of the dictionary, the interpretation of the words and the composition of the Uzbek word varies greatly from the other dictionaries created in that period.

Iskhakhon Ibrat is recognized as a Jadid writer in our national literature. From the point of view of the period, Jadid period literature is the literature which was appeared in the transition period from traditional classical literature to new Uzbek literature in Uzbek literature, and in Uzbek linguistics from the old Uzbek language to the new Uzbek literary language formed in the XX century, that is, in the intermediate area at the crossroads of tradition and innovation. We can see not only in the literary samples, but also in lexicographical dictionaries, this intermediate position has played a role of combining two points of development and a mark of both points. Although the new idea is among the progressive Jadid educators who have been reluctant to learn a new idea, Iskhakhon has created a dictionary based on the principles of Western principles of innovation, based on the principles of traditional Oriental Lexicography, in creating the “Lughati Sitta al-sina”. As the author points out, although the dictionary made in the interests of the "travelers" at that time, was the linguistic source which incorporates the principles of east and west at that time, has introduced for people to the acquisition of foreign languages along with acquaintance with cultural life, advanced science and technology achievements in the world, and it was a lexicographical work that has a specific place in the evolution of Uzbek lexicography;

5) Changes in the Uzbek literature, Uzbek language and linguistics in the XX century, are closely linked with changes in the social, political, literary and cultural life of that period. Changes in social life during this period had a direct impact on the field of language, in particular in terminology. New reforms in the area of school and education, the development of trade relations with foreign countries, and positive shifts in science and industry have led to the emergence of new terms in the fund of Uzbek-language dictionary. Also, Russian language's leading role in this period of studying the foundations of science, in particular the news about economy and politics, has caused the need to translations of the same terms in dictionaries. Therefore, the lexicographical work on the creation of special bilingual translation dictionaries of public-political terms has been started and N. Turakulov's “Political and Economic Dictionary of the Russian-Uzbek language” [11] is characterized by the fact that it was the first work in this area.

As we know, according to the verbal expression and interpretation of the word terminological dictionaries have the signs of encyclopedic and linguistic dictionaries. They can be monolingual, bilingual or multilingual, non-explanatory (with the equivalent of the dictionary units), explanatory and encyclopedic. From this point of view, N. Turakulov's “Political and Economic Dictionary of the Russian-Uzbek language” is quite complex. The dictionary is bilingual (Uzbek translation of Russian political and economic terms), but in the translation of terms, there are also cases where their direct equivalence is given, as well as translation of terms with explanations. The dictionary is based on Russian alphabetical graphics, with Uzbek translations and explanations of a total 403 Russian terms.

The dictionary has a special place in the public-political terminology and Uzbek lexicography. On the bases of dictionary, we can get an idea of what kind of terms were used in that period, and about their meanings, change, and updating. As the dictionary contains the terms of industry is not perfect. However, this dictionary has an important place in the history of the Uzbek lexicography as an example in the regulation of terms in this field also, as well as in the creation of terminological dictionaries of other industries;

6) Also, in the lexicography of this period there are also educational dictionaries, which are used as a guide for school textbooks and manuals. In particular, in 1925, the dictionary by the Russian scientist V.Brilof which was published under the title “Russian-Uzbek dictionary for the textbook of Shokirjon Rahimi “Kattalar yuldashi” [2] – “Companion of adults” is also notable as a dictionary created in a new direction. The dictionary, though known as the translation dictionary, is fundamentally different from that of other Uzbek-Russian, Russian-Uzbek translation dictionaries at that time. This is because the dictionary is not an ordinary talkative dictionary for Uzbek or Russian learners, but rather primarily the priority of the educational objective. The dictionary can be seen as one of the first things that led to the creation of a set of teaching aids in the Uzbek Pedagogical System in the Jadid. Because, the dictionary is not completed directly alphabetically based on the textbook of Shokirjon Rahimi “Kattalar yuldashi”, contains the alphabetical order of words that is difficult to understand at the end of every new theme. It defines the dictionary as the first educational dictionary associated with the learning process, adapted to the text as a tool for learning the textbooks at that time. Thus, it should be noted that in the development of Uzbek lexicography in the Jadid period, the formation of dictionaries based on the curriculum due to the educational need in the new system of education among the various translation dictionaries created during that time, completes one of the important signs of dictionary compiling.

From the above, it can be summarized that the work of the Jadid writers in the field of lexicography and their impact on the development of the subsequent periodicity of the dictionary compiling:

·      the first terminological the Russian-Uzbek translation dictionary was created by Jadid writers’, which was the primary resource for the dictionaries of this type that have been created in the later period.

·      Elbek's “Uzbekcha shakldosh suzlar lughati” has served as a resource for the creation of many specialized dictionaries as “The Dictionary of the Uzbek language synonyms”, “The Dictionary of the Uzbek language homonyms”, “The Dictionary of the Uzbek language Antonyms Dictionary of Uzbek Language”, “Dictionary of Uzbek Paronyms” which were created in later times;

·      The work “Lughati Sitta alsina” created by Iskhakhon Ibrat, can be considered as the first example of multilingual dictionaries in Uzbek lexicography;

·      “The Fihrist”, created by Abdurauf Fitrat for his work «Devonu lug'atit turk» can be considered as the first index dictionary in the Uzbek lexicography;

·      The Uzbek-Russian Dictionary for “Shokirjon Rahimi‘s textbook “Kattalar yuldashi” created by V.Brilof, is the initial educational dictionary created in the Jadid period.

In conclusion, the practical linguistic activity of the Jadid writers raised the Uzbek lexicography to a new qualitative level. The dictionaries created during this period are characterized primarily by the combination of the history and the period. We can see the correspondence of the classical East and the modern West lexicographical practice. Secondly, unlike the classical dictionaries, which was mainly used to understand the language of literary works, the Jadid dictionaries were associated with more language teaching and language education issues. The dictionaries of Jadid writers served as a basis for further development of modern Uzbek dictionary compiling.

Bibliography

  1. Ashurali Zahiri "Complete Russian-Uzbek dictionary", 2 volumes. – Tashkent-Samarkand, 1927.
  2. Brilof V. “Russian-Uzbek dictionary for the textbook of Shokirjon Rahimi “Kattalar yuldashi”. – M., 1925.
  3. Elbek. “Uzbek to’la suzligiga materiallar” // Language problems. Scientific Research Institute of Language and Literature of Uzbekistan. Language Sector Complex, Issue 2, "Uzdavnashr", 1935.
  4. Elbek. “Uzbekcha shakldosh suzlar lughati”. – Tashkent, Uzdavnashr, 1934.
  5. Fitrat. “The samples of the Oldest Turkic Literature”. –Tashkent, "Mumtaz suz", 2008.
  6. Fitrat. “The samples of Uzbek Literature” – Tashkent, "Mumtoz suz", 2013.
  7. Hamraeva O. "Phihrist" of Fitrat // Moziydan sado. – Tashkent, 2016, 1st issue.
  8. Iskhakhon Ibrat. “Lughati Sitta al-sina”. – Tashkent, typography of Il’in, 1901.
  9. Kadyri, S. Rakhmaty. "Russian-Uzbek full dictionary", Vol. 2. – Tashkent-Kazan, 1934.
  10. Madvaliev A. Isakhon Ibrat's six-language dictionary // Uzbek language and literature, 4th issue. – Tashkent, 2017. – P. 53–56.
  11. Turakulov N. “Political and Economic Dictionary of the Russian-Uzbek language” – State publishing house of the Turkiston Republic. – Tashkent, 1922.
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