D. R. Daniyarova, Ph.D., associate professor;
N. Z. Imadildayeva, MSc, assistant professor;
Kazakh American University,
Distance learning is a narrative way of training with the use of modern technologies, which is by virtue of information technology and computer technology are used in a big way. Distance education system in Kazakhstan is one of the forms of obtaining higher education without compulsory daily attendance at the university. With its help one can increase or acquire a new qualification.
Distance learning is not a novelty for a modern educational system. This form of education arose in the XVIII century in Europe, and it was actively introduced in the XIX century in Germany and the United States. In the 1960s in the Soviet Union this option was involved in the correspondence form of education .
From the early 2000's the ICT program was actively implemented in the educational system, in other words the implementation process of information and communication technologies in higher education. As the computer and the Internet became accessible and popular means of communication, the universities took advantage of this. The universities developed and offered distance learning programs, which helps students to gain higher educational degree .
Distance learning in Kazakhstan is currently on a stage of formation, which include developing of new methods of teaching, and consulting and monitoring of the training tasks. Nevertheless, there are a number of universities in the Republic of Kazakhstan offering distance learning to acquire a new specialty or qualifications.
The term and conditions for distance learning in Kazakhstan:
· An access is provided to electronic teaching materials: lectures, animated graphics;
· Methodical recommendations and assignments are supplied to all students;
· There is an electronic training portal where each student has a personal login and password to log into the system.
· Students perform assignments or tests (score results should be sufficient for admission to the session);
· Interviewing is mandatory before course enrolment;
· Tutors present lectures in interactive format;
· There is an opportunity to study and practice abroad;
· A student must perform simulation exercises;
· Online lectures and video-instructions are presented;
· The student is obliged to provide answers to questions of self-control;
· Webinars, video lectures, videoconferences are involved;
· Mobile communications are used for counseling students;
· Offline-communication requires to complete the final control by passing the session exams directly within the walls of the university;
· Counseling by chat and communication with teachers’ takes place in online mode;
· There are 2 sessions per year;
· Dissertation presentation and state exams are held at the university;
· General course duration varies from 3 to 5 years.
As a result, it is possible to remotely receive a degree in various specialties in public and private universities of Kazakhstan. Persons who already have higher or secondary specialized education can enter the university.
The number of listeners who use the opportunity to remotely improve their qualifications is increasing from year to year. Therefore, universities strive to provide high quality educational services in this segment. The main reasons why applicants prefer distance learning:
· It is an opportunity to enhance your level of qualifications or acquire the required specialty without leaving working place.
· Persons with disabilities can receive distance education.
· You can learn wherever you are; the main thing is the available Internet.
· Assignments could be performed at any convenient time.
· The student obtains self-study skills.
· It is necessary to pass the session exams in the university (some universities conduct this procedure online) twice a year.
· The listener is constantly in touch with the teacher thanks to chats, telephone communication and the Internet .
However, it should be taken into account the factor of obvious disadvantages which distance learning have:
· Lack of face-to-face communication between students and the teacher. That is to say all aspects related to the individual approach and upbringings are excluded.
· The need for a variety of individual psychological conditions. Rigorous self-discipline is necessary for distance learning, and its result directly depends on the student's self-control and conscientiousness.
· The need for continuous access to information sources. Good technical equipment is necessary, but not everyone who wants to study has a computer and Internet access. As a rule, there is a lack of practical training.
· There is no continuous monitoring, which is a powerful incentive.
· Training programs and courses may not be well developed due to the fact that there are not so many qualified specialists who are able to create such training materials.
· In distance education, the basis of learning is only written. For some, the inability to express their knowledge in verbal form can also turn into a stumbling block.
· The most significant arguments: the lack of a centralized system of certification and accreditation of electronic courses, which prevents the full and high-quality development of educational and methodological support for distance learning, the high complexity of the process of developing electronic courses, etc. 
There is a minimal level of difference between distance learning and the correspondence form of education, but there are also nuances that must be taken into account for the competitor for distance learning:
1. For admission it is enough to pass a comprehensive test or interview.
2. Education is fee based
3. There are mandatory technical requirements: the presence of a computer, internet and speakers.
4. The learning process connects two types of interactions - online and in the classroom. In other words, the student will listen to lectures remotely, use the training materials that are posted on the server of the university, but most of the time must come to the university to pass the midterm control and state exams .
These simple requirements are easily could be met by many students, since practically everyone has the technical requirements necessary for distance learning.
Many educational institutions use distance technologies in their practice, since many students already consider this form of education as the most optimal one.
The following tasks can be solved most effectively with the help of distance learning: to involve teachers from the regions in the experience and developments of the country's leading specialists in the field of new technologies in education; and then these teachers will be able to pass on their knowledge and experience to their immediate students. There will be no need to travel outside the city and even schools – the best teachers themselves will come to them through the Internet. This will dramatically accelerate the transfer of best practices and significantly expand the extent of its dissemination and implementation in the educational process.
No matter the face that the remote form of learning quickly gained immense popularity in the educational world. Moreover, large corporations also became interested in it, rightly assuming that this form of training would enable them to quickly, relatively inexpensively and efficiently improve the level of training of their personnel without interrupting production.
In conclusion, distance learning is a very convenient and useful form of education. But to get a fundamental education in this way only if for some reason (spatial, temporary or monetary) a student does not have the traditional training option. Kazakhstan has a large territory and, due to the geographical feature, distance education is extremely necessary. Our opinion on this matter confirms the fact that today in Kazakhstan the main demand for distance learning is concentrated in the regions. They are very effective in the field of additional education or advanced training, because the student has already received the basics of the profession and knows a lot from full-time education.
After all, there are not enough educational institutions that meet the metropolitan or international level. That is, other things being equal, traditional education still benefits.
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3. Jason Allen Snart, Hybrid Learning: The Perils and Promise of Blending Online and Face-to-Face Instruction in Higher Education, Praeger, 2010.
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5. Интернет: www.dist-edu.ru; www.hse.ru; www.ui.usm.ru.