A. M. Yerokhin, Doctor of Sociological Sciences, professor
North Caucasus Federal University,
Stavropol, Stavropol Territory, Russia
The traditional systems of information service are not adapted to the satisfaction of constantly increasing requirements to information support of objects which change in the course of scientific research [1, p. 168–177]. While information service in the course of informatization of society ultimate goals of scientific work are not considered, degree of analyticity and generality of the provided information is low. The researcher quite often cannot accurately formulate the requirements. One of the peculiar features of information requirements is their connection with the scientific activity which is carried out at the level of a task or a problem [2, p. 7–10]. For effective research it is important that information support has been focused on satisfaction of needs for objectively necessary information of a certain stage of creative process. Such approach is defined by the fact that in the process of transition from one stage of development to another requirements, imposed to scientific information, have been changed. They represent a set of such quantitative and qualitative characteristics of information which most fully meet desirable requirements and promote implementation of developments [4, p. 136–143].
In scholarly literature there are concepts according to which nature and content of information requirements are connected with the purposes of developers realized at the concrete stages of research [3, p. 21–24]. It is specified that the efficiency and results of information activities depend on its organization in the sphere of direct interaction of information systems and end users of information, on "capability of system of information to adapt to the changing information requirements" [6, p. 4]. Two principles are the cornerstone of such adaptation: orientation of information stream to a specific scientific problem (subject) in general, meaning its end result; constant adaptation of information processes to the changing course of research and its internal structure.
Information support of scientific research represents continuous multistage technological process consisting of the following stages (operations): the analysis of information situation on a research subject, determination of a level of its readiness, explanation of character and tasks of scientific search; assessment of structure of development, detection of information needs at each stage on the basis of a research of their entity; compilation of the rules (strategy) of information search; subject search (retrospective and current); analysis and synthetic processing of information, preparation on its basis of information materials; researcher’s analysis of the provided information, establishment and maintenance of accurate input; generation of information streams by results of scientific activities; development of the scientific and methodical principles of complex information support of research and development operation, continuous improvement of forms and methods of its organization and carrying out.
Information support of scientific research in the field of culture and art begins, as a rule, with a stage of thematic planning of scientific developments which takes the important place in the activity of body of information [7, p. 15–18]. Planning of research begins with the information analysis of materials on the basis of which the prospects of expected researches are defined.
It is necessary to develop criteria which would allow defining the scope of researches correctly for ensuring efficiency of thematic planning. The following can be the main criteria of inclusion of researches in the thematic plan: compliance of a research to requirements of branch of culture, to its objective requirements; prospects of a research, possibility of introduction of results, their influence on cultural development; development and use during scientific research of new theoretical provisions.
On the basis of the given criteria the analysis and synthesis of information is carried out, new information is developed, which becomes the operating information for elaboration of the final decision on inclusion of a subject in the plan of research works. To receive necessary data, indexes of literature, abstract editions, thematic reviews, various information sources are studied and analyzed.
Process of scientific research is characterized by changes of certain parameters in time [8, p. 82–89]. So, the structure of cogitative operations, structure of operating by the known data, a ratio of cogitative and technical works are not identical during all research.
The major problems in information support are presented by the complex, culturological scientific research defining sociocultural development. Such researches often have an indistinct information kernel, for scientific search primary sources from different sections of other branches of knowledge are required; information requirements, as a rule, cover wide thematic fields.
Information support of complex researches differs in a number of features. The first one is that the initial stage of development very often needs search and processing of all available information, including computer equipment. Determination of criteria of crossing of thematic interests is carried out on the basis of main directions of scientific integration.
Each scientific research in the format and form differs from one another. In this regard it is very difficult to achieve that real consumption of information was equally to demanded, planned. It is necessary to introduce amendments directly during scientific work in due time in thematic and specific aspects of information, strategy of search.
The efficiency of scientific information activities depends on the scientific information demanding necessary minimum of knowledge of difficulties of the existing system of scientific communication and modern forms of scientific information activities. The important methodological principle of planning and all process of information support is that information activity is a component of the research work influencing direct participation in information process for the benefit of effective scientific search. Degree generally depends on specifics of this or that process of scientific communication, features of culturological research [5, p. 142–146].
Thus, accurate definition of the direction of process of the research, specific objectives and ways of their decision, deep analysis of information situation, knowledge of results which are supposed to be received as a result of scientific development are defining conditions that process will be consistently provided with information strictly according to real objective requirements, with obligatory accounting of interrelations of all stages of the research and information developments of various systems of activity in the field of culture and art.
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