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Научный мультидисциплинарный журнал
русский, английский, чешский
Идёт приём материалов
Информатика Искусствоведение История Культурология Медицина Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Техника Филология Философия Экология Экономика
A. M. Shekhmirzova Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, associate professor,
L. V. Gribina Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, associate professor
Adyghe State University, Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russia
In modern conditions of a qualitative change in the Russian education system within the Bologna process, the content of education is being built in accordance with the realities of today. The transition to a market economy and the growth of globalization processes led to the inconsistency of the existing Russian system of training specialists with world trends in the development of educational systems. A graduate of a domestic higher school must be ready for a quick orientation to the new changing socio-economic circumstances. This provides for a change in the approaches and methods of organizing the educational process within the framework of the integration of Russian education into the common European space of higher education. The traditional teaching method, which solves the problem of transferring universal human social experience from older generations to younger generations, allows only to preserve and maintain their own traditions. Whereas, the development trends of modern society have actualized the problem of the competitiveness and success of an individual in the labor market. Its solution is facilitated by the implementation of a competence-based approach in the higher education system, which allows you to gradually adapt to global processes in accordance with international standards. Within its framework, the process of professional mobility of graduates and their career competence is considered at a qualitatively different level.
In the scientific literature, career competence is a condition for the successful construction of a professional career for graduates, the essential characteristic of which is associated with creative personal development, reaching the heights of “acme” (self-realization, self-development, self-actualization, self-assessment of one's own life success). Hence, the emerging need in higher education for the application of new teaching methods and technologies, which form the competence of self-organization and self-education as the basis for preparing students for life and future careers.
The desire to constantly improve their own level of professionalism is the most important integrative quality of the personality of graduates of modern universities, which ensures career growth. The need for them to effectively build their own career path was noted by the Ministers of 46 countries participating in the Bologna Process in 2009 in Leuven (Louvain-la-Neve), where the priorities and prospects of higher education in the European space until 2020 were determined .
Assessing the successes achieved in the framework of the Bologna process, they stated the need for higher educational institutions to ensure the further implementation of the tasks set, including preparing students for an active life in a democratic society by creating sufficient resources for their personal development and future career. European ministers responsible for higher education noted the need to improve the quality of education and provide students with conditions that create opportunities for their career growth.
Hence, the increased attractiveness of the result-centered approach to the design and implementation of the basic educational programs of higher education in recent years. Within the framework of this approach, the assessment of educational results is based on the indicators already achieved in the course of training and in relation to the level of personality development, taking into account the existing potential of opportunities.
As the world university practice shows, the basis for the design and organization of the educational process should be a system-forming unity of goals, results, criteria of efficiency and evaluation. Based on the analysis of federal state educational standards (FSES) in different areas of training of students involved in the study, it is shown from a systemic standpoint that the goals reflect in general formulations the planned professional and career successes of graduates who have mastered a certain educational program.
The expected results upon completion of the training are formulated in terms of competencies. The criteria for the effectiveness of the educational program and its implementation at the university determine the measurable specifications, through which the achieved results are established on the basis of the data obtained. The evaluation and value of the final achievements is carried out through the collection and analysis of the data obtained. In general, in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education (HE) at different levels, the ability to build one's own professional career is considered as the planned final learning outcomes for bachelors, undergraduates and postgraduates.
Despite the existing numerous studies on the problem under consideration, the analysis of scientific works and the results of psychological and pedagogical research has shown the predominant appeal of scientists to various aspects of the formation of a professional career and the development of career competence. Scientific works, which have undoubted theoretical and practical significance, reflect various aspects of the study of a professional career from psychological, pedagogical, acmeological, social, economic positions: career motivation (E. Shane, A.Ya. Kibanov, Super DE, Tiedeman DV, O'Hara RP), factors of personal career advancement (Moll E.G., Derkach A.A., Chappel DS, Schermerhorn JR, Gysbers NC , Moore EJ Hall DT), individual career development (A.K. Markova, Super E., Parker, LB, Peterson SL), personnel career management (Kibanov A.Ya., Hall DT), professional self-determination in choosing a profession (Kovaleva Yu.L., Super DE, Tiedeman DV, Hara RP), development of the competitive personality of students (Morozova G.P., Nagornaya A.G., Zunker VG).
Within the framework of the study, the works of domestic ones (T.G. Gnedina, E.V. Dankova, E.F. Zeer, E.M. Ivanova, E.A. Shadrikov) and foreign (A. Bandura, S. Buhler, Chappel DS, Hall DT, Parker, LB, Super DE, Tiedeman DV) career planning researchers [6; eight]. At the same time, the problem of the formation of students' career competence as an integrative quality of their personality in the context of multilevel higher education remains insufficiently studied from a systemic standpoint.
Based on the study of the state of domestic practice of higher education and generalization of the scientific and pedagogical experience of Russian and foreign researchers on the problem under consideration, it can be concluded that today there is no existing holistic view of the formation of career competence of students in the context of the implementation of the competence-based approach in the multilevel system of higher education.
Russian higher education is characterized by a contradiction between the need to prepare competitive graduates in accordance with the requirements of the Bologna process and the insufficient focus of the higher education system on the formation of career competence of students as an integrative quality of their personality. The undoubted importance and the need to resolve the revealed contradiction determined the relevance of the study and justification for this pedagogical conditions.
2. The purpose of the work.
The purpose of the study is to identify and theoretically substantiate the pedagogical conditions for the development of career competence of students in a multilevel system of higher education through an experimental test. Achievement of this goal was carried out in the course of solving a number of research problems using a complex of scientific research methods and assessment and diagnostic methods for assessing the level of formation of career competence adequate to each individual stage of work.
3. Materials and research methods.
The presented material of the article reflects the results of a relatively independent study of the problem of career competence of students, the success of the formation of which is based on their self-organization and self-education, including taking into account the capabilities of the Moodle learning environment . The results obtained contribute to a significant expansion of the subject area and are included in the set of verified conceptual provisions in the framework of the implementation of the competence-based approach in a multi-level system of higher education.
In order to check the starting points, research methods were used: theoretical - a comparative analysis of literature from various fields of scientific knowledge dealing with the study of planning and development of professional careers (philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, vocational guidance, management economics, personnel management in an organization), study and generalization of advanced pedagogical experience, systematization method, comparative and comparative analysis of federal state educational standards in different areas of training of students involved in the study, modeling the processes of self-organization and self-education of students as a basis for building their careers, taking into account the possibilities of the Moodle learning environment; empirical - conversations with bachelors, undergraduates, graduates, questionnaires, a set of adapted diagnostic techniques ("Motivation of higher education", "Value orientations", "Career orientations"), experimental work; statistical methods of measurements and mathematical processing of experimental data.
The main provisions of the study have been tested since 2011 at the Adygay State University (AGU, Maikop) and the Adyghe branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (Adyghe branch of the RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Maikop). The study involved students from various areas of training for undergraduate and graduate programs: 03.44.01 Pedagogical education, 03.03.05 Pedagogical education (with two training profiles), 45.03.01 Philology, 49.03.01 Physical Education, 030900 Jurisprudence, 081100 (38.03.04) State and Municipal Administration, 080200 Management, 050100.68 “Pedagogical Education (Master).
The theoretical part of the study contains an essential and meaningful characteristic of the concept of "career competence", identified on the basis of the analysis of the works of domestic and foreign authors [2; 6; 7]. Assessment of career competence as an important component of professional competence is necessary both for modern students already at the first stages of building a successful career, and for graduates, regardless of the professional field of activity. This is confirmed by the data obtained from the survey of graduates of the Adyghe branch of the RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation in the areas of training 030900 Jurisprudence, 081100 (38.03.04) State and municipal administration, 080200 Management. According to the majority of graduates (87%), in recent years there has been an insufficient level of development of their career competence associated with an increase in the competitiveness of an individual in an ever more complex professional environment. Similar results were obtained during a conversation with students in the areas of bachelor's degree 44.03.01 / 44.03.05 Pedagogical education, 45.03.01 Philology, 49.03.01 Physical culture, as well as magistracy 050100.68 “Pedagogical education. The increasing complexity of the professional environment in modern conditions of dynamic social development was acknowledged by the majority of the surveyed bachelors and undergraduates (92%). At the same time, the comparative analysis of scientific literature showed that a significant part of the research is devoted to the career competencies of specialists in economic and management specialties (managers, economists, civil servants, etc.). As for other professional spheres of activity, the problem of the formation of career competence in such specialists turned out to be insufficiently studied by researchers, although it is no less significant in the context of global trends in the development of education systems and the requirements of international standards. This is confirmed by the provisions of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education of the last generations, in which career competence, with its various formulations, is highlighted in the basic part of the basic educational programs (OPOP) of bachelor's, master's and postgraduate studies in various areas of training.
The comparative analysis of federal state educational standards of different levels of higher education has shown the importance of career competence for bachelors, undergraduates and postgraduates. So in the pedagogical direction of training, in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education at the bachelor level 44.03.01 / 44.03.05 Pedagogical education and the type of project professional activity, the graduate prepares to solve a professional problem related to modeling the individual educational trajectory of students and their own educational route with the construction of a professional personal career.
This tendency is reinforced in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the direction of preparation of the magistracy 050100 Pedagogical education, in which the readiness of the graduate to carry out professional and personal self-education, design his educational route and professional career is significant for performing both pedagogical and research activities.
Further, at the subsequent level of higher education, a graduate who has mastered the postgraduate program in the direction of preparation 44.06.01 Education and pedagogical sciences must master universal competence, manifested in his ability to plan and solve problems of his own professional and personal development (UK-6). Thus, it became possible to express the activity characteristic of the personality of students, associated with the ability and readiness to build a career, through the appropriate competence at all levels of higher education.
In the course of the study, in order to identify the essence of career competence in a multilevel system of higher education, the generic basic concepts of “competence” and “competence” were considered in relation to “career competence” as a specific concept.
The distinction between the concepts of "competence" and "competence" is available in the works of various researchers (I. A. Zimnyaya, V. S. Lednev, I. S. Sergeev, V. I. Blinov, E. F. Zeer, N. N . Abakumova, I. Yu. Malkova, A. V. Khutorskoy). Within the framework of our work, the definitions proposed by A.V. Khutorsky were of interest in connection with the appeal to the content of education. A scientist understands competence as a set of interrelated personal qualities that are set in relation to a range of certain processes and objects in order to carry out productive activities at a qualitative level.
Competence is associated with the possession, possession of a person of the appropriate competence, which includes his attitude to her and to the subject of activity. These author's definitions reflect the four component composition of the content of education, where the first two components (experience of cognitive activity, experience of implementing methods of activity) are reflected in the concept of "competence", and the third and fourth (experience of creative, search activity, experience of emotional-value attitude to to the surrounding world, to knowledge, to activity, to oneself, to moral norms, to ideological ideas) - in “competence”.
From these positions, our preferences in the choice of the proposed A.V. Khutorskiy definitions are also conditioned by their compliance with the views of the majority of foreign researchers (W.Hutmacher, K.Keyn, A.Heba, D.S.Chappel, J.R.Schermerhorn, D.T.Hall, D.E.Super, D.V. Tiedeman) [2; 5; 7; eight]. It is the definitions proposed by A.V. Khutorsky that more fully correspond to their understanding of the meaning in the concept of “competence”, which makes it possible to carry out a certain type of activity with the meaning “I know how” and “I know what”. In other words, the cognitive and regulatory nature of the definitions (domestic approach) makes it possible to use “competence in action” (foreign approach).
Career competence as a significant component of professional competence is considered by us as an integrative personality quality, expressed in the ability to clearly understand one's own career potential and in effectively building a professional path with overcoming possible difficulties.
The main conditions for its formation, regardless of the professional field of activity, identified as a result of the study, constitute the educational environment of the university, which assumes:
1. The presence of a special department of the university, not directly related to teaching, but dealing with the issues of comprehensive support for the career of a future specialist and their career counseling. For this purpose, in the Adyghe branch of the RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, a Student Career Development Service was created (organization of round tables, master classes, training seminars to establish business contacts with professionals and potential employers).
2. Enriching and supplementing the content of education in accordance with the competence-oriented curricula and educational programs of HE in the areas of training that are relevant for the formation of career competence as an integrative personal quality with the necessary educational material (inclusion of special courses, optional disciplines, individual thematic modules in content of disciplines).
3. Implementation of the project type of activity and adequate educational technologies that form the competence of self-organization and self-education, taking into account the possibilities of the educational environment of the Moodle university as the basis for preparing students for life and future careers.
4. Creation by students from the first courses of a portfolio of career achievements and its accumulation during training, practically orienting them towards further personal advancement in professional activity, in career growth.
4. Research results and their discussion.
The results of the research carried out since 2011 made it possible to confirm the hypothesis put forward about the effectiveness of the formation of career competence as an integrative quality of the personality of graduates of a multi-level system of higher education in certain pedagogical conditions.
The highlighted conditions correspond to the provisions of the legislative educational documents of Russia and the European Union. Thus, the need to improve the conditions for the provision, accessibility and quality of educational services for the development of a professional career offered to graduates is determined in the Communiqué of the Conference, organized in April 2009 in Leuven (Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve) with the European ministers of the countries participating in the Bologna Process.
The main conclusions are published in the collections of materials of the annual International and All-Russian scientific and practical conferences, in the scientific journal "Society", the International bilingual scientific journal "Path of Science".
The conclusions obtained as a result of the study formed the basis of the recommendations used in the design of the main educational program of higher education - the program for the training of scientific and pedagogical personnel in graduate school in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the field of training 44.06.01 Education and pedagogical sciences (the level of training of highly qualified personnel) . In connection with the complication of the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education for the postgraduate program for the training of highly qualified personnel, and the recent entry into force of the corresponding Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education (from 01.09.2014, taking into account the amendments made by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia dated April 30, 2015), the work undertaken has further continuation.
The research prospects are connected with the substantiation of the effectiveness of the formation of the scientific career competence of graduate students, taking into account the results obtained at the previous levels of HE and the recommendations used in the design of the OOP HE of the postgraduate program .
The obtained research results of the work carried out make it possible to conclude that the formation of the career competence of the personality of graduates in the multi-level system of higher education, taking into account the possibilities of the Moodle learning environment, is facilitated by the pedagogical conditions corresponding to the provisions of the Bologna process. At the same time, with each increase in the level of higher education, a scientific professional career increasingly dominates, which substantively enriches the concept of career competence in various areas of training, including pedagogical.
The study showed the effectiveness of the work done on the formation of career competence based on the methodology of a systematic approach and necessitated the design of OPOP VO in a multi-level system, regardless of the areas of training.
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