A. M. Shekhmirzova Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, associate professor,
L. V. Gribina Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, associate professor
Adyghe State University,
Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russia
Currently, within the framework of the Bologna process, the system of Russian higher education is undergoing fundamental transformations. Certain difficulties are associated with the practical implementation of the competence-based approach in the educational process of Russian universities. A fairly understandable ideology of the competence-based approach in modern university practice has certain methodological shortcomings. The introduction of this approach into the normative component of Russian higher education is not sufficient for its practical implementation in the educational process. The most significant substantive difficulty arises when defining universal (or general cultural universal character) competencies in the structure of basic professional educational programs (OPOP) in accordance with the requirements of federal state educational standards (FGOS) of higher education (BO).
The term "general cultural competence" was proposed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for the new generation FGOS. To date, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation has approved methodological recommendations for updating the existing Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education, taking into account the accepted professional standards (No.DL-2 / 05vn dated January 22, 2015). They propose the introduction of clarifications in the wording of general cultural competences (OK) contained in the early version of the Federal State Educational Standard, taking into account the Dublin descriptors, which confirms the worldwide focus on ensuring the quality of higher education within the framework of the Bologna Agreement. The document notes the establishment, already in the new edition of the Federal State Educational Standard, of uniform universal competences for each level of BO, taking into account the continuity and differences between them. Universal competences (UK) acquire special significance in the context of global trends of accelerating changes in the modern labor market due to their social orientation. It is required to revise the meaningful understanding of universal competencies as educational results in the context of a new understanding of the practice of implementing the competence-based approach. UK are integrated educational results that graduates must master in the course of mastering professional BO programs for the successful implementation of future activities.
The achievement of effective results is facilitated by the joint activities of the teaching staff of universities. The need to establish meaningful subjective relationships between university participants in the educational process is noted in the Communiqué of the Conference of European Ministers on Higher Education "Bologna Process 2020 - European Higher Education Area in the New Decade" (Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve, 28-29 April, 2009). The validity of the recommendations of the ministers is confirmed by the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the new edition, the practical implementation of which implies mutual cooperation not only between the teaching staff, their students, but also with representatives of employers, taking into account international educational trends.
The problem of the formation of the Criminal Code among graduates of various areas of training in the system of higher Russian education is studied by Russian scientists I.A. Zimnyaya, E.F. Zeer, N.A. Selezneva, A.V. Khutorsky, A.A. Orlova, A.E. Fedorov and others. A significant contribution to the development of the problem was made by foreign researchers, including Hauf, Huck-Schade, Scheitler, Schaeper, Müller, Orth, Weinert, Kohler. However, despite the presence of numerous studies by foreign and Russian authors on the formation of general (universal, key) competencies, it should be recognized that at this point in time there is no universally recognized scientific definition of the term itself and its theoretical justification. The manifestation of uncertainty begins with the existing various substantive accents of the English counterparts, synonymous with the concept of "universal competencies" - "key competencies" (key competencies), "enabling skills" (skills that provide opportunities), "generic skills" (general skills), "soft skills "(Soft skills). The analysis of normative documents for BO (FGOS, OPOP, curricula in pedagogical and economic areas of training), numerous scientific publications of domestic and foreign researchers on the problem of universal competencies, a study of the state of higher education practice, generalization of the experience of a number of Russian universities, made it possible to identify insufficient elaboration of their theoretical and methodological foundations.
The preservation of the traditional practice of subject orientation towards professional competencies to the detriment of universal ones, underestimates their social significance, which can lead to “the destruction of the unified competence-based space of Russia” (according to V.I.Baidenko). The undoubted importance of the CM in ensuring the quality of higher education in the context of the provisions of the Bologna Agreement, on the one hand, and the difficulties of the methodological, resource, personnel and structural order, on the other hand, determined the relevance of identifying methodological problems of modern university practice and their formation as a systemic educational result joint efforts of the teaching staff.
2. The purpose of the work.
The aim of the study is to identify methodological problems characteristic of modern university practice of forming universal competencies, presenting their social significance as a systemic educational result of joint activities of the teaching staff of the university. To achieve this goal, various research tasks were identified and solved.
3. Research methods and materials.
In the course of the work carried out, to solve the set tasks, a set of complementary methods of scientific research, adequate to the studied complex object, was used. A specific choice of scientific methods (theoretical analysis of foreign and domestic scientific literature, analysis of the university experience of Russian universities in the formation of universal competencies in numerous scientific publications, analysis of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in pedagogical and economic areas of training, curricula, work programs of disciplines, observation, conversation with the university teaching staff and others) was determined by the logic of work and the tasks to be solved at individual stages in accordance with the object and subject of the study. A comparative and comparative analysis of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education and other regulatory documents was carried out according to undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate programs in pedagogical and economic areas of training (44.03.01 /44.03.05 Pedagogical education in the direction of bachelor's degree in Geography / Biology, Chemistry / Biology; Music; Fine arts ; Choreographic art), 081100 /38.03.04 State and municipal administration; 080100 /38.03.01 Economics (Accounting, analysis and audit; Finance and credit); 080200 /38.03.02 Management; 080400 /38.03.03 Personnel management), 44.04.01 "Pedagogical education in the direction of magistracy (Science education; Musical culture and art), 38.04.01 Economics (Accounting, analysis and audit); 38.04.02 Management (Innovation Management), 44.06.01 Education and Pedagogical Sciences under the Postgraduate Program (General Pedagogy, History of Pedagogy and Education), 38.06.01 Economics (Economics and National Economy Management).
The research base for testing the main and particular provisions was the universities of Maikop (Adyghe State University, Maykop State Technological University, Adyghe branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation). In the course of the theoretical part of the study, based on the analysis of numerous scientific publications, familiarization with foreign and domestic experience in the formation of the Criminal Code, their essential features were revealed. The analysis of the currently operating FGOS of BO in pedagogical and economic areas of training for the representation of UK (OK) in them showed the differences in the approaches of foreign and domestic scientists to their general understanding. In the positions of European and Russian researchers, there is no clarity regarding the essential understanding and composition of the Criminal Code. Basically, the majority of foreign researchers (P. Zervakis, T. Haertel, I. Jahnke, etc.) are characterized by an understanding of UK (soft skills) in relation to the success of achieving results in a specific professional or other situation. These, often called key transferable skills, must be mastered by graduates along with subject competences, which was emphasized by P. Cervakis, head of the center of Bologna at the conference of German rectors in Germany .
Hence, the formulation of educational results characteristic of foreign experience with an emphasis on the successful performance of activities (what skills, abilities and knowledge will be acquired by graduates upon successful completion of the development of an educational program). In the approaches of Russian authors, although there is an openness of the question of determining the UK (they are not even in the standards themselves, along with the definition of competence), there is a clear understanding of the need for their formation among graduates, regardless of the specific direction and level of their training to ensure the development of other, general professional (OPK) and professional competencies (PC).
Related to all disciplines of the UK (skills of joint collective (team) work; communication skills, etc.), improve the employability of graduates, regardless of the profile and focus of training, which has practical confirmation in the experience of many Russian universities.
The analysis of scientific publications and normative documents showed that with regard to the composition of the UK, European scientists distinguish instrumental, interpersonal and systemic. Russian researchers consider them in the context of the new edition of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in other classification groups within the framework of the future professional activities of graduates of educational programs. They correlate with the developed set of competencies in the methodology of the Pan-European Tuning project as a valuable source of information for the formation of the UK .
UK are a systemic educational result of mastering a specific program in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education and cannot be reduced to individual skills or knowledge; they become achievable by joint efforts of the teaching staff of the university. Summarizing presented in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education, general for each level of UK, we can conclude that a group of social and personal competencies is added to the composition proposed by foreign scientists in the Russian normative document. We substantiated this on the example of undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate programs in pedagogical and economic areas of training, taking into account that OK in accordance with FGOS 3+ are universal for all areas of training of the corresponding level. The practical implementation of the UK (OK), OPC and PC allocated in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education allows graduates to obtain fundamental knowledge and master various competencies, taking into account the tasks of the Bologna process related to the creation of a common European space for the comparability of the educational systems of the participating countries while preserving their national characteristics.
We substantiated this on the example of undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate programs in pedagogical and economic areas of training, taking into account that OK in accordance with FGOS 3+ are universal for all areas of training of the corresponding level. The practical implementation of the UK (OK), OPC and PC allocated in the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education allows graduates to obtain fundamental knowledge and master various competencies, taking into account the tasks of the Bologna process related to the creation of a common European space for the comparability of the educational systems of the participating countries while preserving their national characteristics.
The list of UC (OK) established by the standard is not strictly tied to the objects and subjects of work of the future professional activity of graduates, in contrast to the defense industry complex and PC, reflecting professional qualifications and differing for different disciplines and areas of training. UC as systemic educational results presuppose successive formation in the context of the implementation of the competence model of a university graduate . At the same time, as the research work shows, the Russian university practice is characterized by methodological problems that complicate the formation of the UK and the achievement of the required quality in the conditions of the Bologna process.
4. Research results and their discussion.
As shown by a comparative analysis of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in pedagogical and economic areas of training, the formulation of educational requirements forces us to focus specifically on the learning outcomes, acquired competencies. Based on the generalization of the experience of the formation of the Criminal Code in a number of Russian universities, it can be concluded that without further additional work on the development of the formulations of competencies from the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education, practical difficulties arise in their implementation, which can only be eliminated by purposeful joint activities of the teaching staff of universities. The predominance of subject-oriented work in the educational practice of Russian universities does not allow ensuring quality focused on the consistency of the sequential mastering of competencies within the framework of both disciplinary and interdisciplinary modules with the functioning of feedback elements. This is where the first methodological problem of the formation of the UC arises, associated with the lack of study of the structure of the UC and the absence of theoretical developments of their successive formation at various stages of training within the framework of the graduate's competence model.
The lack of empirical content of the UC does not allow us to comprehend their significance for mastering the military industrial complex and PC, leading to the success of professional activity (for example, the competence of self-organization and self-education) in the conditions of the Bologna process. It is the success of the educational result that characterizes the European understanding of competencies. Taking into account the modernization of the Russian VO system, it can be eliminated at the stage of developing OPOP, taking into account Professional standards using the methodological recommendations approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Guidelines for the development of OPOP and additional professional programs taking into account the relevant professional standards, No. DL-1 / 05vn dated 22.01. 2015).
The authors of the guidelines propose to develop requirements for learning outcomes specifically for the knowledge, skills, skills, and competencies being formed. The questions of a methodological nature that arise with this formulation are somewhat clarified for program developers; further clarifications in the text of recommendations on indicators of knowledge assimilation, skills development and competence assessment are clarified. Such a development becomes more realistic and achievable by universities with the practical implementation of the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education.
The practical problems arising in this case must be resolved before the entry into force of the Federal Law from July 2016, which establishes the mandatory application by employers of Professional Standards that determine the requirements for the qualifications of workers in the performance of their labor functions (No. 122-ФЗ dated 05/02/2015). In this regard, amendments were made to the Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation" and the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. The formation of the UC, taking into account this legislative norm in the course of the implementation of the competence model of a university graduate, makes it possible to guarantee its relevance in the Russian and international labor market .
Another methodological problem arises in the practical formation of the UC in the educational process of the university. The lack of a unified understanding of the essence and composition of the UC led to the presence in the practice of VO of the phenomenon of ignoring the procedure for assessing their formation at various stages of training in the course of mastering OPOP. As the analysis of VO practice shows, often students are not able to demonstrate the level of formation of the UC at certain stages of training. In Russian higher education, the subject orientation of the educational process still dominates, which leads to the implementation of a mechanism for adding assessment results for individual knowledge and skills.
Meanwhile, UC are formed by disciplinary and interdisciplinary OPOP modules, educational technologies at the system level, and the educational environment of the university.
The changing socio-economic conditions, taking into account social needs, the interests of the state, the individual and employers and the social orientation of the UC, necessitate the development of their composition within the framework of the graduate's competence model and complex indicators for assessing educational results as a basis for assessment procedures in the final certification. A holistic solution to the identified methodological problems of the modern university practice of the formation of the UC as a systemic educational result is possible only through joint efforts of the teaching staff of the university.
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2. Shekhmirzova A. M., Pshizova A. R. Competence model of a university graduate in the context of modernization of the Russian higher education system // Paradigmata poznání. - No. 4, 2015, pp. 154-160
3. Zervakis P.A. The dilemma of proposing common standards for implementing learning outcomes in decentralized curricular development. German Rectors' Conference 8 - 10 September 2008 (Bonn / Berlin Germany) / Program on Institutional Management in Higher Education OECD, Paris, 2008. - Available at: http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/SubmitedFiles/11_2010 / 145255 .pdf
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