A. S. Karamova, Ph.D. Associate Professor,
Sochi State University,
Sochi, Krasnodar Territory, Russia
The digital economy, like digital education, can be considered a challenge for the future, which is already coming. Digital education can be seen as the transition of the educational process to a digital position as a turning point in education in general. Consequently, the study, development and education of digital competencies of students begins to acquire decisive importance and it’s an important part of the entire educational process. Each stage of the education system in the Russian Federation includes a number of digital processing technologies and elements of distance technologies.
At the stage of general education, distance learning is implemented in the form of an electronic journal, when students receive their homework through a special platform. Institutions of higher education use distance learning for the access to various resources: online courses in basic disciplines, electronic libraries, and a personal account. If we consider education in universities and institutes, we’ll see that these institutions are very well equipped with digital technologies. A lot of developers focus their efforts on the development of digital technologies for higher education.
But in this article we will try to determine why, of the whole variety of digital technologies in education, digital technologies are poorly developed and presented for institutions of secondary specialized education.
First, it is necessary to take into account that the secondary specialized education system faces a lot of risks, for example such as the unpreparedness of teachers to use distance learning.
Confirmation of this thesis is the situation with the transition of colleges, technical schools, lyceums, vocational schools to distance learning from March 2020, due to the spread of coronavirus infection.
On a par with employees of other institutions, teachers of vocational educational institutions of secondary specialized education have switched to distance learning. According to the recommendations of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, industrial practice, state final certification, defense of graduation and diploma theses, holding a demonstration exam, if technical capabilities are available, should be organized with the usage of remote technologies.
To analyze the possibilities of SSE institutions and the readiness of teachers to switch to distance learning, let us turn to the results of monitoring carried out in April 2020 by employees of the FIRO RANEPA.
The teachers' assessment of the organizational and methodological conditions for the transition to a distance form showed the absence of organizational and methodological requirements for the structure of online courses, electronic educational and methodological complexes, electronic educational resources, online courses themselves, ready to use.
Organizational and technical conditions are assessed by teachers as satisfactory: there are technical platforms for the implementation of the training session, there is high-speed Internet access, the practical part of the training has been transferred to a remote mode. At the same time, the general understanding is strengthened that the didactic limitations and difficulties of entering distance learning are more significant than technical difficulties.
Estimates of the use of distance technologies by students are rather low: the provision of students with computers (laptops, tablets, other devices that are completely suitable for online learning). Effective feedback from students on learning issues is rated as average. In addition, teachers note that the educational activity of students began to decline as the motivating "effect of novelty" passes, and more and more skills of systematic educational work, self-discipline, and self-control are required. Information-technological and psychological-pedagogical preparedness of teachers for the implementation of distance learning can be rated as average.
When asked about the barriers of using distance learning, teachers noted the following as the most significant: the lack of pre-prepared online courses in subjects of general professional and professional cycles, the lack of time, the teachers' unpreparedness for productive work in the distance learning mode and the inability of some students for the productive independent learning.
From this we can conclude that the subjective assessment of the importance of obstacles by respondents has increased. With a longer and deeper immersion in distance learning in open source software, more and more problematic nuances are identified and realized. In general, teachers of professional educational organizations are ready and able to use digital resources in the educational process. However, the monitoring results showed the obvious disadvantages of distance education in SSE: the time of direct interaction between a student and a teacher is reduced to a minimum; the possibility of the teacher's individual work with each student is reduced; ethical issues of digitalization have not been resolved. According to experts, the result of this is a narrowing of the transmission channel of implicit knowledge from person to person; students do not acquire social skills necessary for future work; the personality of the teacher becomes unimportant, his work is increasingly evaluated as short-term work.
Considering the advantages and disadvantages of distance learning, it can be assumed that the most effective for the open source system will be the blended learning technology – building a digital educational process based on new digital didactics, i.e. combining learning in the course of personal communication with learning in distance mode. Blended learning technology makes it possible to more effectively use the advantages of both face-to-face and e-learning and neutralize or mutually compensate for the disadvantages of each of them. Some experts argue that for the development of digitalization, in the future, it is necessary to switch to blended forms of education, which involve interaction with the teacher only at the request of the student, in the event that disputable situations arise or it is necessary to direct the research in the right direction, suggest how to solve that or some other problem.
It can be assumed that blended learning is a modern educational technology that combines traditional technologies for the implementation of learning, e-learning and distance learning technologies, used to improve the efficiency of the educational process. With regard to the system of secondary vocational education, this technology can be used in the implementation of general education and general professional disciplines, partly in the organization of interdisciplinary courses and practice.
Thus, the use of blended learning, which will allow combining not one but a number of forms, and not exclusively distance learning, can be considered optimal for the implementation of a number of educational programs and educational institutions of open source. In addition, it is easier for teachers of colleges, technical schools, vocational schools and lyceums to progressively move to digital forms of organizing the educational process, gaining experience in distance learning.
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