V. I. Gorbatov Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences, associate professor,
Vladimir State University named after Alexander Grigoryevich
and Nikolay Grigoryevich Stoletovs,
In the modern changing world, scientific and social progress radically changes the content of human activity. A specialist has to improve constantly and adapt to new living and working conditions.
At the present stage of our society development, the social need for creative people who think outside the box has increased as never before. The need for the creative activity of a specialist and developed thinking, for the ability to design, evaluate, rationalize, is growing rapidly. The solution to these problems largely depends on the content and methods of training future specialists [3, p. 240].
Educational institutions strive to improve the quality of the knowledge and skills taught through the use of the latest technologies and personal approach, as well as the development of students’ competence. It is not surprising that more and more attention is paid now to innovative technologies in higher education. Innovation in educational activities is the use of new knowledge, techniques, approaches, technologies to obtain a result in the form of educational services, which differ in social and market demand, and most of the innovations are associated with the development of technologies. By the term “technology” we mean activities that reflect the objective laws of a given subject area as much as possible and ensure that the results of activities are most consistent with the pre-set goals for these conditions [2, p. 95].
Educational technology is a systematic method of design, implementation, evaluation, correction and subsequent reproduction of the educational process [2, p. 95].
Innovative learning technologies include interactive learning technologies, student-centered learning, project learning technology, problem-based learning, block-modular learning technology, computer and other technologies that contribute to the creation of pedagogical conditions for the development of key competencies of young professionals, namely:
· leadership skills;
· strategic planning, vision of prospects;
· the ability to create and work in a team, to unite a team;
· skills of business culture, constructive business communication;
· the ability to analyze the situation, identify the problems of the organization and find a solution to these problems;
· the ability to build communication;
· the ability to increase the productivity of work meetings and meetings due to their speed and efficiency.
Innovative learning technologies include the following innovative learning tools:
· TV and video teaching aids (video lectures, teleconferences, interactive lessons);
· computer teaching aids (electronic textbooks, multimedia courses, training programs endowed with the functions of a textbook, training and control of acquired knowledge, training computer programs, as well as tests and other controlling computer programs);
· distance learning tools;
· communicative teaching aids (active methods of collective studies in the form of business and operational games, discussions, as well as problematic and interdisciplinary lectures.
Using innovative technologies in an educational institution, important tasks, aimed at educating a qualified specialist, are solved. These tasks are the following:
· implementation of an individual approach to students;
· organization of operational control system over the development of educational programs by students;
· providing conditions for the continuity of education;
· the presence of a developed information and educational environment, which ensures the dynamic development of information and technological competence of the student and the possibility of using information technologies as a means of teaching and self-study.
Innovative pedagogical technologies use well-known teaching principles. However, they also have their own inherent principles:
1. Fundamentality, that is, the academic discipline contains basic information, on the basis of which one can expand knowledge in this area.
2. Cultural conformity. This principle means that teaching should be done in accordance with the current level of cultural development.
3. Humanization and humanitarization of education. The humanization of education means a philosophical and socio-political doctrine that proclaims the good of a person as the highest goal of educational activity, according to which the content of education should freely ensure the comprehensive development of the individual, the active participation of the individual in the life of society. The idea of humanization also extends to the forms and methods of teaching, to the entire set of conditions in which it takes place [1, p. 128].
The humanitarization of education is a system of measures aimed at the priority development of general cultural components in the content of education and, thus, at the formation of the personal maturity of students [1, p. 128].
4. Activity approach. This principle provides for such a technology, which is based on the didactic principle of connection between theory and practice.
5. Continuity of education, that is, preparing students for the need to continue their studies and improve the acquired knowledge, skills and abilities throughout their lives.
Thus, educational technologies ensure the integrity of the educational process and provide opportunities for differentiation and individualization of educational activities. Concreteness, clarity, accessibility of the material make the teaching of students more effective and meaningful, aimed at the formation of vital and professionally significant competences. In the context of innovative technologies application, classes are mainly of a practical nature, where students are given independence in choosing the ways of mastering the educational material, and the teacher acts only as a coordinator of the learning process.
The main purpose of vocational education is to train a qualified specialist capable of effective professional work in his specialty and competitive in the labor market [7, p. 382].
Innovative teaching technologies that form the professional competencies of a future specialist should become a training ground where students can work out the professional skills necessary for the effective performance of their functional duties, in conditions close to real ones. Innovations in the vocational education system should be a combination of new knowledge, approaches and technologies for the formation of professional qualities of the student’s personality and the training of modern specialists in a multicultural world. It is important that in the learning process the student takes an active position and expresses himself as a subject of educational activity.
In connection with the introduction of the Federal State Educational Standard (FSES) of the third generation, requiring the use of the latest teaching methods and an innovative approach to teaching students, universities need to adopt the following educational technologies in their work: student-centered learning, problem-based learning, test forms of knowledge control, block-modular training, project method, case-method, credit-modular assessment system, multilevel training, distance learning. Nowadays, institutions of higher education are faced with the task of training professionally competent, socially active and competitive specialists capable of adequate professional self-determination and self-development. It is educational technologies associated with increasing the effectiveness of training and education and aimed at the result of the educational process – the training of highly qualified specialists, that can help us resolve it.
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