S. V. Pogorelaya Candidate of philosophy, docent,
Vladimir state University named after A. G. and N. G. Stoletovs,
The academic discipline «History of Musical Culture», read to students of the Humanities Institute of the Vladimir State University named after Alexander Grigoryevich and Nikolai Grigoryevich Stoletov, is designed for students who do not have special musical training, but have a sufficient amount of basic knowledge of the cultural history of Europe and Russia. Among the main tasks of the discipline, it should be noted that students gain knowledge about the various stages of the development of musical culture, about the best examples of instrumental and vocal music, about the masterpieces of musical theater. The course also provides an introduction to the work of the most important foreign and domestic composers of different eras and their works.
«The history of musical culture» is part of a more extensive course devoted to the history of various types of arts, which plays an important role in the general cultural education of students and in ensuring their professional growth, in the formation of «a highly intelligent, spiritually rich, tolerant, professionally mobile personality, who owns universal norms of morality, culture... and is able to ensure a sustainable improvement in the quality of their own life and society» [2, с. 73]. The discipline is logically and content-methodologically connected with such disciplines as «History of Culture», «Theory of culture», «History of Art», «Art culture of Western Europe», «Art culture of Russia», «Art of the XX century», in the process of studying which students develop the necessary skills for its full development of analysis and systematization of material, work with scientific literature and sources. A comprehensive understanding of the musical culture of each of the epochs under consideration is achieved by using intra-and interdisciplinary connections with the listed disciplines.
For example, when studying the musical culture of the Silver Age, students get a general idea of this milestone period for Russian culture, which gave birth to many different artistic trends, which collided avant-garde, modernist art with traditional art focused on realistic principles. A comparative analysis of the development of literature and musical art of the period under consideration, identifying the points of their intersection, is of interest.
The sharp struggle of creative trends, the complex, sometimes bizarre interweaving of aesthetic trends are a distinctive feature, including the musical life of the early XX century. At the same time, often in the work of one artist there are experiments with different styles and techniques of writing, a wide variety of literary and philosophical influences are traced.
As a bright phenomenon of the culture of the Silver Age, which is not just in the general direction of the artistic and philosophical searches of the early twentieth century, but partly determines this very channel and the nature of the search, the art of A. N. Scriabin is indicative. It is known that the composer occupied a very special place in the artistic world of his time. Scriabin's work had a significant impact on the formation of the intellectual atmosphere of the early twentieth century. In his works, the late Romantic traditions coexist with the phenomena of musical impressionism, expressionism, symbolism, and in philosophy, the ideas of F. Nietzsche and V. S. Solovyov, theosophists and Eastern mystics are uniquely combined.
On the example of A. N. Scriabin, one can trace the nature of the interaction of the spiritual-mental and artistic aspects of creativity, the transformation of philosophical ideas into artistic images created by the composer.
Within the framework of the course, it is possible to compare the spiritual, mental and musical creativity of A. N. Scriabin from different years, to identify the cross-cutting ideas that determined Scriabin's compositional activity. The rich material for such research is provided by the philosophical «Notes» of the composer, which were published in the almanac «Russian Propylaea» in 1919 .
In addition, the course provides a promising analysis of a wide range of phenomena of Russian culture in the context of Russian Nietzscheanism at the beginning of the century. In particular, it is advisable to consider the complex, multi-level connection of representatives of Russian symbolism with the teachings of the German philosopher, to identify the philosophical and aesthetic ideas of Nietzsche, which had the strongest and most lasting impact on the development of Russian culture at the beginning of the twentieth century, including those that became the «source and integral part» of symbolism as a literary school and worldview.
Thus, the history of musical culture is studied in the broad cultural context of the epoch; the connections of musical art with other types of art are revealed, any fact is considered in development, in connection with other facts. The analysis of the general patterns of their development allows us to make a more complete picture of the general aesthetic principles of world and domestic art culture, which is of particular importance for the formation of universal, general professional and professional competencies of students-cultural studies, museologists. At the same time, students strengthen their knowledge about the consistent change of cultural paradigms in different historical epochs, about the main styles and directions of art, which contributes to expanding their horizons, increasing the general cultural level, and educating artistic taste.
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