Научно-методический и теоретический журнал
Идёт приём материалов
Искусствоведение История Культурология Педагогика Политология Право Психология Религиоведение Социология Филология Философия Экономика
S. E. Kegeyan Candidate of Philological Sciences, associate professor,
Sochi State University,
Sochi, Krasnodar Territory, Russia
At present, modern higher education in Russia highlights the development of general and professional competencies, which is due to the requirements of federal state standards of generation 3+. To implement these requirements, it is necessary to modernize not only the content of education, but also the methods of its implementation, the content and guidelines of the domestic education system have undergone significant changes [1, p. 12].
These should be methods that are aimed at the formation of subject-subject relations between students and teachers, the active participation of students in the educational process, interaction with the environment and each other when performing creative and problematic tasks . Such indicators correspond to interactive teaching methods.
The use of interactive teaching methods in the educational process of higher education makes it possible to solve the problem of insufficient motivation of students, to assist in the optimal assimilation of educational material.
Both lectures and practical classes can be conducted in an interactive form. An alternative to traditional lectures can be lectures with planned errors that activate students, since they carry out search for methodological, behavioral, content and other errors intentionally made by the teacher. Also, problem lectures provide ample opportunities for the teacher to design problem situations with their subsequent analysis by students.
The lecture-discussion includes the student in a situation that requires him not only to update his life experience, but also to qualitatively transform it.
The use of interactive teaching methods in seminars can be carried out in various ways:
Brainstorming, which is also known in pedagogy as a method of collective search for ideas, is an effective way to actualize the creative potential of students through the free expression of their thoughts on the problem under consideration.
Case study is the use of so-called cases during the training session, that is, pre-prepared situations on the problem under discussion. Analysis and problem solving take place initially under the guidance of a teacher with a gradual increase in the degree of independence of students. When compiling such a case, certain conditions must be observed: compliance of the situation with the content of the discipline; the presence of a problem; simplicity and relevance of the problem, the presence of clear instructions for working with it [1, 3].
Business games based on imitation of professional activity have great potential in the educational process of the university. With the help of a business game, it is possible to solve such problems as modeling the labor process and promoting the development of teamwork skills .
Another effective interactive method of teaching and socio-psychological development of a personality is training, which is a set of various games and exercises combined into a system with the help of several theoretical modules . Thanks to the use of training, students learn to effectively interact with colleagues, overcome barriers, and develop professional competencies .
The method of projects is becoming increasingly popular, which allows students to master competencies while working on gradually becoming more complex practical tasks – projects . The project is a set of such types of work as search, research, graphic, which are performed by students on their own, but under the guidance of a teacher for a practical or theoretical solution of a designated task or problem .
In order to diagnose and analyze achievements, develop reflection and self-assessment of the results of educational activities in professional education, portfolio technology is widely used, which involves working with various results of educational activities of students .
A portfolio allows you to show various aspects of student development, teaches you the ability to set goals and objectives, plan and carry out your activities, helps maintain interest in the discipline being studied and receive feedback based on the result achieved, allows you to track the stages and the quality of students' mastery of educational material .
In this study, some of the above methods were used in order to develop students' creativity. The introduction of the listed interactive teaching methods was carried out in stages:
1. At the preparatory stage, all work is based on the development of appropriate motives and intentions in relation to training, profession, motives for self-improvement. To solve these problems, the training “Self-presentation” was organized. This training is aimed at identifying strengths of the individual, the formation of motivation for learning and confidence in the creative abilities of students.
2. The main stage is aimed at enriching the cognitive component of students' creativity and includes replenishing the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies of students through the use of a number of interactive teaching methods. In educational activities, in particular, case technology was used, through which situations were built that required an exchange of views and actualization of life experience. Pedagogical situations of closed and open type were used. In the first case, it was necessary to evaluate the actions of the teacher in a given situation, in the second case, to imagine yourself in the place of the teacher and offer your own options for getting out of the problem situation.
Problematic lectures were also actively used, consisting of several stages:
At the 1st stage, they started with a problematic presentation of the lecture material, during which the teacher poses problems, puts forward hypotheses, conducts a thought experiment, draws conclusions from various solutions and shows the need to verify them. The participation of the students themselves is carried out in the form of predicting the next step of reasoning.
As the participation of students increased, they proceeded to the next stage – joint learning, where the teacher independently poses the problem, and the solution is achieved jointly with the students.
At the next stage, there was a transition to research, where the teacher poses a problem, and the solution is achieved by the students on their own.
At the final and most difficult stage, creative learning is carried out, the essence of which lies in the independent formulation of the problem and finding its solution.
3. At the professional and activity stage, the embodiment of personal and professional intentions in the practice of training and activity is carried out. They were implemented through business games imitating future professional activities .
Interactive teaching methods and educational technologies discussed in this article are primarily aimed at increasing the activity of students and their motivation for educational and professional activities. They make it possible to move from passive assimilation of knowledge by students to mastery of competencies in simulated or real situations of professional activity, which undoubtedly improves the quality of student training.
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